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Untitled Prezi

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Candelaria Luque

on 14 August 2013

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Forms of the Subject
Birds fly.
Little girls like playing with dolls.
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
You should see a doctor.
Those are my shoes.
A few were discarded.
Some of my friends are coming home tonight.
My daugther studies Medicine, but hers studies law.
Martin´s was a clear example.
Who is talking at the back?
To see is to believe.
Swimming is good exercise.
The retired suffer a lot.
Tomorrow will be a great day.
Common Noun

Detail 2
Detail 3
Detail 4
Birds fly.
Little girls like playing with dolls.
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
You should see a doctor.
Those are my shoes.
A few were discarded.
Some of my friends are coming home tonight.
My daugther studies Medicine, but hers studies law.
Martin´s was a clear example.
Who is talking at the back?
To see is to believe.
Swimming is good exercise.
The retired suffer a lot.
Tomorrow will be a great day.
Common Noun

Proper

Common Noun

Common Noun

Common Noun

Fabián Negrelli

B. OPTIONAL ADVERBIALS
They can be added to clauses with any type of verb.
They are usually adverbial phrases, prepositional phrases or noun phrases.
They can be placed in different positions within the clause – in final, initial, or medial position.
More than one optional adverbial can occur in a simple clause.

Fabián Negrelli


IT + VERB IN THE PASSIVE VOICE + THAT CLAUSE
It is said that he killed his wife.
It is believed that she cheated in the test.
 
IT + VERB + THAT CLAUSE
It seems that she has lost her memory.
During the trial, it emerged that Jack had been convicted of burglary before.
It appeared that there was nobody at home.
It followed that he was guilty.
It happened that nobody had done the homework.

IT + VERB + OBJECT (WHICH USUALLY REFERS TO A PERSON) + THAT CLAUSE
It suddenly hit me that Jane wanted to marry him.
When she told me the truth, it happened to me that I couldn’t believe it.

Fabián Negrelli

We can express caution by using the structure there (+ passive + to be) with verbs of “saying” or “believing”.

There was said to be many problems at that time.
There is supposed to be someone who can fix it.
There has been reported to be a rise in our salaries.

Fabián Negrelli

One of the students left the classroom.
We all speak English.
Some of my friends are coming home tonight.
Each of the students was given a pencil.

Fabián Negrelli


Swimming is good exercise.
Smoking is not allowed here.
Boxing should be banned.
Parking is forbidden in this area. 

Fabián Negrelli

Somebody has sent her a dozen roses.
Nobody liked the film.
Everything was denied by his secretary.
Much has been said about it.
A few were discarded.

Fabián Negrelli

They are rather loosely attached to the rest of the clause.
They add extra, further information to the clause, covering a wide variety of meanings, such as place, time, manner, extent, and attitude.
The baby is crying in her bedroom.
Laura misbehaved at school yesterday.
Personally, I don´t like it.
She loves him very deeply.
Miguel went to the cinema with his friends last weekend.
Stella has been working hard in her office since eight in the morning.

Fabián Negrelli

It can be an adjectival phrase or a noun phrase.
It follows the verb phrase and (if one is present) the direct object.
It has the semantic role of characterizing a preceding noun phrase.
There are two major types of predicative.
THE SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
THE OBJECT COMPLEMENT.

Fabián Negrelli

WEATHER
It’s quite humid in this place.
It’s hot in here.
It rained heavily last night.

TIME
It’s getting late.
It’s 11 o’clock.
It’s Tuesday 13th, today.

DISTANCE
It seems far from here to the mountains.
How far is it to Oxford?
It’s rather a long way to Susan’s house.


Fabián Negrelli

It’s lovely not to worry about the weather.
It’s great eating in a different restaurant every night.
It’s exciting to see so many young people here.
It’s a pity that we should go home in a few days.
It’s clear why more and more people are choosing this place to spend their holidays.

Fabián Negrelli

 “There” can also combine with “seem to be”; “appear to be”; “used to be”; “tend to be”; “follow”; “come”, “arise”, “remain”.

There seemed to be a mistake in our bill.
There appears to be no one in.
There tends to be disagreement among them.
In former times, there used to be a school here.
There followed a period of peace.
There comes a time when you have to make a choice.
Deep inside her there arose a desperate hope.
At the crime scene there remained little in the way of physical evidence.

Fabián Negrelli

To talk about the existence of people, things, etc.
There is a man at the door.
To announce or report events
Sue, there’s someone at the door.
To set a scene for story-telling
Once upon a time there were three bears: Mother Bear, Father Bear, and Little Baby Bear…
To introduce facts
There are 365 days in the year.
To describe places
In my flat there are two large windows in the living room.

Fabián Negrelli

There is a lot to see and do in this city.
There are plenty of places to go shopping.
There are several lovely beaches.
There is a lot of music.
There are several dance clubs.

Fabián Negrelli


July is a very cold month in our country.
Tomorrow will be a great day.
Tuesday is OK for me.

Fabián Negrelli


The retired suffer a lot.
The elderly should be respected by the young.
The unknown usually calls her attention.

Fabián Negrelli


Listen to me, please. (You)
Let me explain it to you. (You)
Let´s go to the cinema. (We)

Fabián Negrelli


Martin’s was a clear example.
John’s is a better job than mine.
Michael’s is not as expensive as my watch.

Fabián Negrelli

 Little girls like playing with dolls.
My classmate´s house is quite comfortable.
Nobody in this room has signed the contract yet.
The good in her outweighs the bad.
The man in blue has been following me since I left the office.
The lady wearing a red hat looks quite ridiculous.

Fabián Negrelli


To see is to believe.
To forgive is divine.
To work is healthy.
To err is human. 

Fabián Negrelli

Mike is an old car, but mine is even older.
My daughter studies Medicine, but hers studies Law.
I got some interesting information about the topic, but his was even more interesting.


Fabián Negrelli

Fabián Negrelli

A. OBLIGATORY ADVERBIALS
They can occur with two patterns: the copular pattern and the complex transitive pattern.
They usually express place or direction although they can also express time or manner meanings.

Your toast is on the table.
Classes start in April.
She placed the baby on a blanket in the living room.
She treated her very badly.


Fabián Negrelli

It is a noun phrase.
It usually follows the verb
It only occurs with transitive verbs.
It can occur with two patterns:
(i) THE MONOTRANSITIVE PATTERN (it generally denotes people receiving something or benefiting from the action of the verb)
(ii) THE DITRANSITIVE PATTERN (it denotes the entity affected by the action or process of the verb)

Fabián Negrelli

It’s not far to walk to the main shopping area.
Yesterday it was windy and cold.
However, today it’s quite hot.
In fact, it’s over 35º at this moment.
It’s 3:30 now.

Fabián Negrelli

IT + VERB + TO-INFINITIVE CLAUSE
If you want someone to help you, it doesn’t do to annoy them before you ask.
If you want to help him, it doesn’t pay to stay up all night.


IT + VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE CLAUSE
It shocked him to see her looking so ill.
It costs a fortune to go to the opera.
It annoys me to hear James swear like that.
It means a lot to get a place at university.


Most of the verbs used in this pattern are to do with feelings, and include: amaze, annoy, astonish, concern, frighten, hurt, scare, shock, surprise, upset, worry.

Fabián Negrelli

The existential THERE and the notional subject.

IT as Anticipatory subject.

IT as dummy / non-referential / semantically empty subject.

Fabián Negrelli

Who is talking at the back?
What are you doing tomorrow evening?
Which is the right answer?

Fabián Negrelli


This is my last word.
Such is not his usual behaviour.
Those are my shoes.

Fabián Negrelli

They have been playing cards since two o´clock.
She will never tell her husband the truth.
You should see a doctor.

Fabián Negrelli

Sing. /Uncount. noun after “be” singular verb.
There is a very good reason for my choice.

Plural noun after “be” plural verb.
There were too many problems yesterday.

Two or more nouns in a list:
Singular first noun singular verb
Plural first noun plural verb.
When I opened the fridge, there was only a bottle of milk, some eggs and butter.
When I opened the fridge, there were only some eggs, a bottle of milk, and butter.
Full transcript