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Transcript of Australia
British flag had been the official flag for more than 100 years. The birth of a new nation created the opportunity to develop an emblem that represented Australia alone.
The Australian national flag symbolizes Australia’s historical links with Britain and Australia’s location in the southern hemisphere (represented on the flag by stars of the Southern Cross). The larger seven-pointed star represents the six original states and the territories of the Commonwealth.
Coat of Arms
The supporters of the shield are native Australian animals: the red kangaroo and the emu
The shield is a symbol for the federation of the states
seven-pointed gold star- Six of the points represent each of the states of the Commonwealth; the seventh point represents the Australia’s territories.
Australia is the only country which is a continent at the same time . It is called an island continent. Sometimes people refer as "down under" because it lies entirely within the Southern Hemisphere.
It consists of six states and three territories
Flora and Fauna
Australia is a land like no other, with about one million different native species. More than 80 per cent of the country’s flowering plants, mammals, reptiles and frogs are unique to Australia.Australia’s geographic isolation has meant that much of its flora and fauna is very different from species in other parts of the world. Most of them cannot be found anywhere else.
Australia has over 1000 species of acacia, which Australian called "wattle"
Gum trees (eucalypts) are a vital part of the Australian natural environment.
The Land Down Under
WEST AUSTRALIA - its capital is Perth
This part is famous for variety of flowers, rock formations, national
parks and beaches. It’s a largest Australian state.
The Northern Territory lies in the north and center of Australia. It is also the least populated and least developed of all the states and territories. The capital city is Darwin.
Ayers Rock is also known by its Aboriginal name 'Uluru'.Ayers Rock is a large sandstone rock formation in central Australia, in the Northern Territory. It is located in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, 350 km southwest of Alice Springs
SOUTH AUSTRALIA - its capital is Adelaide
This part is dry and desert country. Most of its part is without people.
The majority is production of wine.
QUEENSLAND - its capital is Brisbane
This part is characterized by 2 climate zones - tropical and
subtropical and by the Great Barrier Reef ( corals ).
NEW SOUTH WALES - its capital is Sydney.
We can find here the Blue Mountains
and Three Sisters which is rock formations.
VIKTORIA - its capital is Melbourne
It’s the smallest inland state and is called the garden state. We can
see penguins or seals here. You can practice a lot of water sports.
TASMANIA - its capital is Hobart
It’s island and Hobart is the second oldest city in Australia. There
are organized yacht races from Sydney to Hobart.
It covers an area of 7 686 848 sq km and the population is 18 322 23; Australia has one of the lowest density in the world - only 2 people per 1 sq km. The capital city is Canberra and the main ethnic groups are: British (90 %), other Europeans (5 %) and Aborigines (about 200 000).
As Australia has rich mineral resources,much of Australia´s industry is centered around mining, as well as farming. It exports minerals and metals all over the world.
Sydney is the oldest and biggest city of Australia. It is not the capital. it is the gateway to Australia. A busy and dynamic city, it is different from the rest of Australia.
In the past Aborigines lived there.They were the first people of Australia. Then Australia became a new home for convicts from Europe. Now it´s a modern centre and attractive to tourists. It has around 70 beaches and many parks.The Royal National Park is the second oldest national park in the world. The university of Sydney is Australia´s dest university.
Bondi beach is a popular beach.It is about 1km long. You can sometimes see whales, dolphins and penguins. Bondi" or "Boondi" is an Aboriginal word meaning water breaking over rocks or noise of water breaking over rocks
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is one of Australia's best known and photographed landmarks. It is the world's largest (but not the longest) steel arch bridge
Sydney Opera House (1957 - 1973) is a masterpiece of late modern architecture. There are many cultural events held – concerts, theatre performances, modern dance and so on. There are about 1500 concerts a year. The building looks like a sailing ship.
Aborigines - the native Australians
the original inhabitants of Australia were people called Aborigines. The first known European discovery of the continent was made by a Dutch navigator named Willem Jansz who briefly visited the northern coast in 1606, in 1642 and 1643. Dutch sea captain Abel Tasman, landed on the island which was named after him, Tasmania. The first European who explored Australia´s east coast, was James Cook in 1770. The first white settlement in Australia was made up about 730 prisoners sent there to relieve overcrowding in British prisons.
Later the various colonies in Australia decided to unite into a single nation and unite government on January 1. 1901 the six colonies became states of a new nation the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Three Sisters is the Blue Mountains’ most spectacular landmark, located at Echo Point Katoomba. The Aboriginal dream-time legend says that three sisters, 'Meehni', 'Wimlah' and Gunnedoo' lived in the Jamison Valley as members of the Katoomba tribe. These beautiful young ladies had fallen in love with three brothers from the Nepean tribe, but tribal law forbade them to marry. The brothers didn´t want to accept this fact so they decided to capture the sisters. This led to a tribal battle. The lives of the three sisters were seriously in danger, a witchdoctor from the Katoomba turned the three sisters into stone to protect them from any danger. After the battle the witchdoctor wanted reverse the spell . Unfortunately, he was killed. As only he could reverse this spell to return the ladies to their former beauty, the sisters remain in their magnificent rock formation as a reminder of this battle for generations to come.
Aboriginals had the continent to themselves for 50,000 years. Today they make up less than 3 percent of the population, and their traditional lifestyle is disappearing. The Dreamtime"
Aboriginal spirituality entails a close relationship between humans and the land. Aborigines call the beginning of the world the "Dreaming," or "Dreamtime." In the "Dreamtime," aboriginal "Ancestors" rose from below the earth to form various parts of nature including animal species, bodies of water, and the sky.
Unlike other religions, however, aboriginal belief does not place the human species apart from or on a higher level than nature. Aborigines believe some of the Ancestors metamorphosed into nature (as in rock formations or rivers), where they remain spiritually alive.
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