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shawanna doggett

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A History of Rhetoric Family Tree Done by: Shawanna Doggett
Shirley Charles
Niko Gach Marcus Tullius Cicero Marcus Fabius Quintilian Aspasia Aristotle Socrates Plato Isocrates Corax Gorgias Protagoras Classical Rhetoric 510-440 BC 487-376 BC 436-338 BC 469-399 BC 427-347 BC 400-320 BC 106-43 BC 35-100 AD 470-400 BC 5th Cent. BC - Orator
-He was the founder of Greek Rhetoric along with
Tisias (teacher of Isocrates).
- Corax devised an art of rhetoric to permit ordinary men to make their cases in the courts.
- His chief contribution was in helping structure judicial speeches into various parts: prose, narration, statement of arguments, refutation of opposing arguments, and summary.
- All we know of the work of Corax is from references made by later writers, such as Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. According to Dan Harder, Shakespeare derived the name Sycorax from Corax of Syracuse. Socrates was concerned primarily with the health of the soul, and specifically with philosophy as a way of life (as opposed to oratory, which he called “flattery”).
- He is famous for the dialectical method that he utilizes in Plato’s Gorgias – a process of reaching the truth/understanding by making fine distinctions about definitions in questioning.
- He was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher
- He was numbered as one of the sophists by Plato. In his dialogue Protagoras.
-Plato credits him with having invented the role of the professional sophist.
- He is also believed to have created a major controversy through his statement that "man is the measure of all things". - He was a Greek sophist, Italiote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
- He forms the first generation of Sophists.
- He invited random questions and gave refined impromptu replies.
- He used paradoxes to make the absurd seem logical. ---- - Gorgias was known for embracing nonexistence, either as a worldview or common topic for oration. If his arguments about existence are accepted, a rhetor is able to talk endlessly about anything – there are no limits when nothing exists and all is incomprehensible and incommunicable.
- Some of his works are On the Nonexistent or On Nature, the Apology of Palamedes, the Encomium on Helen, and the Epitaphios or Athenian Funeral Oration. - Essayist, Pundit, Teacher
- Isocrates taught rhetoric as a skill, although rarely practiced himself (weak voice).
- He criticized the Sophists for wasting oratory (and teaching oratory) about “trivial” matters, which were only valid as topics for mental gymnastics – not as a profession.
- Some of his works were Encomium of Helen, Antidosis, Against the Sophists, On the Peace, Busiris, etc. -Philosopher
- Socrates was concerned primarily with the health of the soul, and specifically with philosophy as a way of life (as opposed to oratory, which he called “flattery”).
- He is famous for the dialectical method that he utilizes in Plato’s Gorgias – a process of reaching the truth/understanding by making fine distinctions about definitions in questioning.
- Socrates believed that wisdom was parallel to one's ignorance.
- The Socratic Method or elenchos is described in Plato's 'Socratic Dialogues'.
-Socrates believed that one must concentrate more on self development than on material things. - Philosopher
-All of reality is divided between Truths/physical universe, in which the Truth cannot be known.
-Plato gives us much of what we have on Socrates in his written dialogues. His choices to give us what we have suggest that Plato favored dialectic, had a dim view of Sophistic bloviation, and valued philosophy.
- Plato criticized sophistic rhetoric and the rhetorical practices of Athenian democracy vehemently and uncompromisingly; and he argued that mankind had no hope of political progress until and unless politics came under the guidance of philosophy (Republic 473c-d).
- Some of his works were Phaedrus,Gorgias,Republic, Protagoras, Five Dialogues (incl. Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo). - Philosopher and Teacher
- He analyzed what could be known by the senses (rather than Truth) and compiled long treatises on any topic he could think of – which was quite a few.
- In terms of rhetoric, Aristotle importantly identified (only) three pisteis: ethos, pathos, and logos.
- He also distinguished between (only) three forms of rhetoric: judicial, epideictic, and deliberative; and described in detail the topos available for each; as well as in terms of both artistic and inartistic modes.
- Some of his works were
-Rhetoric, Politics, Poetics, Nicomachean Ethics - Philosopher
- Distills Aristotle and others into five canons of rhetoric (inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, actio) and three kinds of speech (epideictic, deliberative, judicial) – formulating a much abridged version of Aristotle, Sophistic rhetoric & Hermagoras of Temnos (who had solidified stasis theory).
- His head was chopped off.
- Some of his works were De Oratore, Inventione, Rhetorica ad Herenium, On Republic, On the Laws, and various political speeches. - Philosopher
- Quintilian provides us with the first codified “textbook” on the theory and practice of rhetoric – divided into theoretical, educational, and practical constructs.
- His works were Institutio Oratoria(12 volumes) - She was a Milesian woman who was famous for her involvement with the Athenian statesman Pericles.
- Very little is known about the details of her life.
- She spent most of her adult life in Athens, and she may have influenced Pericles and Athenian politics.
- Aspasia was considered by many to be the most beautiful and intelligent of the city's hetairai.
- She is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and other authors of the day.
- Aspasia had a son by Pericles, Pericles the Younger, who later became a general in the Athenian military and was executed after the Battle of Arginusae.
- They were both educated in philosophy, history, politics, science, art and literature, so that they could converse intelligently with sophisticated men.
- Her influence was so great that Plato later joked that she had written Pericles' most famous speech, The Funeral Oration. Middle Ages " Christian" Augustine -a.d.353-430 btwn 384-386 - He became acquainted with the Christian leader Ambrose who baptized him in
371. A. was ordained a priest in 391

-He wrote de doctrina Christiana it was his guide to preaching

- was a Father of the Church whose writings are considered very influential in the development of
Western Christianity Martianus Minneus Felix Capella 5th and 6th centuries -His work was : the marriage of philosophy and mecury included his book of rhetoric published in A.d.
429)

- was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity

- Martianus was active during the fifth century, composing his one famous book, De nuptiis—
fundamental in the history of education, the history of rhetoric and the history of science Boethius A.d. 475-524 -translated the work of Aristotle from greek to latin

-B. was executed on Theodorics order in 524

- Boethius married his foster-father's daughter Rusticiana, had two boys,

- Boethius's best known work is the Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) " Renaissance " Middle Ages Middle Ages " Enlightenment " - He was an Italian scholar and poet, and one of the earliest humanists.

-Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere ("Songbook") and the Trionfi
("Triumphs").

- However, Petrarch was an enthusiastic Latin scholar and did most of his writing in this
language. Francesco Patrarch 1303-1374 - She was an Italian French late medieval author.

- By 1405, de Pizan had completed her most successful literary works, The Book of the City of Ladies
and The Treasure of the City of Ladies, or The Book of the Three Virtues.

- The first of these shows the importance of women’s past contributions to society, and the second strives to teach women of all estates how to cultivate useful qualities in order to counteract the growth of misogyny. Christine de pisan 1364-1430 Lorenzo, or Laurentius, Valla (1407-1457) - He has been called the most wide-ranging and the most
influencial of all humanist.

-Author of: Valla's works were published at Basel in 1540 and at Venice in 1592, and De Elegantiis was
reprinted nearly sixty times between 1471 and 1536. - Giovanni was born at Mirandola, near Modena, the youngest son of Francesco

-His work: n the Oratio de hominis dignitate (Oration on the Dignity of Man, 1486)

- Pico justified theimportance of the human quest for knowledge within a Neoplatonic framework. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 1463-1494 - Born in Valencia.

- His works Opuscula varia (1519), collection of small works include Vives' first philosophical works, Deinitiis, sectis et laudibus philosophiae. Juan Luis Vives 1492-1540 -Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne an English aristocrat, a prolific writer, and a scientist

-Some of her writings :
Poems and Fancies
Fashion and Fame Margret Cavendesh 1623 - An Italian political philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist

- Vico attended a series of grammar schools - Real name is Henry home

- Scottish advocate, judge, philosopher, writer and agricultural improver.

- His Essay: Upon Several Subjects Concerning British Antiquities - He is a Scottish minister of religion, author and rhetorician

-Blair wrote in a time when print culture was flourishing and traditional rhetoric was falling out of favour. - He was a figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, known as a philosopher, minister, and professor of divinity.
- He was an enlightener
- His writing: A Dissertation on Miracles (1762)

- He is an English rhetorician, logician, economist, and theologian who also served as the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin.

-Whately wrote his tract, Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Bonaparte, Giovanni Battista Vico 1668-1774 Lord Kames (1696-1782) Hugh Blair (1718-1800) George Campbell 1719-1796 Richard Whately 1787-1863 -Protagoras wrote a large number of works. Unfortunately most of his works were destroyed, and only fragments survived. Because Plato, Aristotle, and Sextus Empiricus made reference to him, we can piece together some understanding of his thought.. Protagoras' most famous work was called Truth (Alethia), which was refuted by Plato, and On the Gods (Peritheon).ChristianFrancesco Patrarch-1303-1374

an Italian scholar and poet, and one of the earliest humanists.
- Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere ("Songbook") and the Trionfi
("Triumphs"). However, Petrarch was an enthusiastic Latin scholar and did most of his writing in this Modern Era Chaim Perelman 20 May 1912- 22 January 1984 -Examined the relationship between author and narrator, as well as authorial intent and textual content.
-Best known for his rhetorical approach to the study of fictional writing Booth noted that the author’s judgment is always present if you know how to look for it.

Key Works:
• The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961)
• The Rhetoric of Irony (1973)
• The Company we Keep: An Ethics of Fiction
Perelman revealed the logical structure of everyday arguments finding and verifying value claims without reference to an absolute such as divinity or scientific method. Stephen Toulmin 25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009 -Toulmin identified the elements of persuasive argument and the analysis of moral reasoning. -Developed the Toulmin Model of Argumentation which contained six categories in which an argument could be analyzed.
Key Works:•An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950) •An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1953)•Night Sky at Rhodes (1963)•An Introduction to Reasoning (1979)•Return to Reason (2001) Kenneth Burke May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993 - Most influential of U.S. rhetorical theorists, known primarily as a scholar of literature and dramatistic pentrad.
-Burke believed rhetoric was the use of symbols to shape and change human beings and their context defined by three fundamental elements of human social and private existence.
Key Works:
•Counter-Statement (1931)
•The Philosophy Of Literary Form (1941)
•A Grammar of Motives (1945)
•A Rhetoric of Motives (1950)
•Language As Symbolic Action (1966) Lloyd Bitzer 1931- Pressent -Bitzer viewed rhetoric as discourse responsive to a particular kind of situation, arguing that a rhetorical situation is defined by three elements an exigence, an audience, and constraints.
Key Works:•The Rhetorical Situation (1968) Modern Era Wayne Booth 22 February 1921- 10 October 2005 -Examined the relationship between author and narrator, as well as authorial intent and textual content.
-Best known for his rhetorical approach to the study of fictional writing Booth noted that the author’s judgment is always present if you know how to look for it.

Key Works:
•The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961)
•The Rhetoric of Irony (1973)
•The Company we Keep: An Ethics of Fiction Jurgen Habermas 1929- Pressent -Best known for his theory on the concepts of communicative rationality and the public sphere.
-Believed that rational communication developed around the “unforced force of the better argument, with the aim of coming to an agreement about validity or invalidity of problematic claims.
Key Works
:•The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1962)
•Toward a Rational Society (1970)
•The Theory of Communicative Action (1984) Richard Weaver 1910- 1963 -Was authority on Modern rhetoric, Rhetoic had the ability to persuade, language has the power to move people
Key Works:•Ideas Have Consequences (1948)•The Ethics of Rhetoric (1953)•Rhetoric and Composition (1957) Michel Fourcault 15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 -Addressed the nature of power, its uses, and its relationship to discourse. Defining relationship between power and language.
-Major shaping forces in the development of feminist theory.

Key Works:
•Madness and Civilization (1961)
•The Oder of Things (1966)
•The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969)
•The Birth of the Clinic (1963)
•The History or Sexuality (1976-1984) Jacques Derrida 15 July 1930- 9 October 2004 -Derrida’s method of reading texts, know “deconstruction”, has done ore to influence literary and philosophical studies than any other forces in the second half of the twentieth century.
-Wished to deconstruct discourse by challenging traditional assumptions concerning language and meaning.

Key Works:
•Speech and Phenomena (1967)
•Of Grammatology (1967)
•Writing and Difference (1967) Edwin Black 1927- 2007 -Black was known as a leading scholar of rhetorical criticism, which became a coequal third field of rhetorical studies. -Criticized “Neo-Aristotelianism” for its lack understanding of the text.
Key Works:
•Rhetorical Criticism: A Study in Method (1965)•The Second Persona Modern era Karlyn Kohrs Campbell 16 April 1937- Pressent -Conducts research in rhetorical criticism, rhetorical theory, political communication, women's communication, and social movement rhetoric.
Key Works:
•Man Cannot Speak for Her
•Women Public Speakers in the United States
•Deeds Done in Word
•Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric Jane Blankenship 1934- Pressent -Primary field of study was rhetorical theory and criticism, interested in political discourse, often in electoral politics and increasingly in women’s political discourse.
Key Works:•Speaking: A Rhetorical Perspective (1966)•Selected Readings in Speech Communication (1974)•A Sense of Style (1968) Kathleen Hall Jamieson 1946- Pressent -Jamieson studies various forms of campaign communication, along with the discourse of the presidency.
Key Works:•Presidents Creating the Presidency (2008)•The Obama Victory: How Media, Money, and Messages Shaped the 2008 Election (2008) Marie Hochmuth Nichols - President of the National Communication Association, 1969-Major contributor on the discipline and the future of critical thought.
Key Works: •Rhetoric and Criticism (1963)•Rhetoric in a Time of Pessimism (1973) Sally Miller Gearhart 15 April 1931- Pressent -Became the first open lesbian to obtain a tenure- track faculty position, helped to establish one of the first women and gender study programs in the country.

Key Works:
•The Wanderground (1979)
•A Feminist Tarot (1981)•The Kanshou (2002)
•The Magister (2003) Key Works:
•Traité de l’argumentation- la nouvelle rhétorique (The New Rhetoric)- (1958)
•Rhétorique et Philosophie (1952)
•Justice et Raison (1963)
•Le Champde l’argumentation (1970)
-Best known for his theory on the concepts of communicative rationality and the public sphere.
-Believed that rational communication developed around the “unforced force of the better argument, with the aim of coming to an agreement about validity or invalidity of problematic claims.
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