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Transcript of Earthquake
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel
through the Earth's layers, and are a result of
an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that imparts
low-frequency acoustic energy. An instrument called seismogram can detect these seismic waves.
Magnitude and Intensity
>Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake. Magnitude is determined from measurements on seismographs.
>Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location. Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment.
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Aguado, Rya Muriel A.
Antolin, Emwyra Kristine N.
is the sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by the rock masses that
suddenly shift in position.
-named after A. E. Love
-these waves cause rock particles to move at right angle or perpendicular to the direction of
-waves that travel through the interior of the Earth
-they provide seismologist with information on the nature and composition of the Earth's interior
are compressional waves that are longitudinal in nature. These waves can travel through any type of material, including fluids, and can travel at nearly twice the speed of S waves.
are shear waves that are transverse in nature. These waves arrive at seismograph stations after the faster moving P waves during an earthquake and displace the ground perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.
Focus and Epicenter
>Focus is where slipping or releasing of energy along the fault occurs causing the earthquake.
>Epicenter is where the earthquake is felt the strongest. The epicenter can be located above the focus but that can vary depending on the density of the surrounding and nearby rock strata.
A Textbook in Earth Science and the Environment by Dr.
Estrella A. Madriaga and Dr. Fedeliz S. Tuy
Where Earthquakes Occur?
are cracks in the Earth where sections of a plate or two plates are moving in different directions.
These areas experience Earthquakes because tension in the Earth is released from rocks in the Earth crust and upper mantle.
Types Of Faults
Most Earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. The plates are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the Earth, the mantle, that lies underneath the crust.
Focus and Epicenter
> Travel only in solids
> Second to be recorded by a seismograph
> Cause the particles of a material to move up and down or left and right but always perpendicular to the direction the wave travels
> Travel in all types of media
> First to be recorded by a seismograph
> Cause the particles of a material to move forward and back like an accordion as it passes through
Comparison of the Primary and Secondary Seismic Waves
-the study of earthquakes and the waves they create
-travel out from the epicenter onto the surface of the Earth.
-comparatively weaker than the body waves
-last to be recorded by a seismogram
-named after Lord Rayleigh
-these waves cause the rock particles to move in different directions depending on where the path of seismic
Richter Scale -named after Dr. Charles F. Richter
-best-known logarithmic scale used in measuring magnitude of earthquakes.
Modified Mercalli Scale -expresses the intensity of an earthquake as felt in a given location or region in values ranging from I to XII, with I as the most feeble and XII as the strongest and can cause total damage to property.