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Theatre History 2

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Theatre History

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Transcript of Theatre History 2

1828 to 1906 Theater of Cruelty Weimar Classicism 1786 to 1805 Weimar Classicism, Germany
Major Works:
Goethe- Faust, 1808
Wallenstein- Schiller, 1799
Alceste-Wieland, 1773
Goethe Faust and Schiller Wallenstein were the minds behind this literary and cultural romanticism with its foundations in Roman art from the classical period.
The ideas of Goethe and Schiller influenced the philosophies of Hegel and Nietzsche, the music of Mozart and Beethoven, the ideas of Charles Darwin, and German nationalism as a whole. Caryl Churchill 1938 to present 1938 to ? Theater of Cruelty
1938
Antonin Artaud – Les Cid (1935)
Jean Gent- The Balcony (1956)
The Living Theater Company- Paradise Now (1988)
Peter Brook (1960)
Theater of Cruelty was lead by Anrnin Artaud who was highly influences by Surrealism and symbolism. He published his manifesto Theater and its double which described the process of Theater of Cruelty. Artaud said that the theater must assault the audience to break down its resistance and purge it morally and spiritually. Arutaud says that the audience must see what they do not want to see. Cruelty is not physical but mental and physical. Similar to Brecht he placed the audience in the center of attention by putting acting areas in the corners and catwalk; it addresses all of the sense rather than the mind.
It has influenced many postmodern playwrights. Heiner Muller, Caryl Churchill and Pina Bausch are all playwrights who have combined Artaudian and Brechtian theories in their writing. Caryl Churchill
1938- Present
Caryl Churchill, England
Caryl Churchill is a current playwright. She began writing plays when she wrote scripts for BBC radio.
She eventually became the resident dramatist for the Royal Court (1947-1945). Most her plays were written for the Joint Stock Company in the 1980’s. Her plays are primarily about power, powerless, exploitation, politics and gender roles, all pushing boundaries and written with her strong feminist viewpoint . Her first big play was Cloud 9 (1979) for the Royal Court. She has won Laurence Olivier and Obie awards for her work. Other plays include Serious money (1988), Top Girls (1982), A Number (2008), and Drunk Enough to Say I Love You (2006).
Many believe that Caryl Churchill has shaped the way that modern drama is today. She has lead the way with experimental theater and in her writing on political, socialist, and feminist themes. She was heavily influenced by Breckt and this can be seen in the general format of her plays. She also has been an influence in that fact that her more recent plays include the use of dance or choreographed movement. Henrik Ibsen Henrik Ibsen, Norway
Major works:
A Doll's House, 1879
Hedda Gabler, 1891
Peer Gynt, 1876
Ghosts, 1881
He was known as "the father of realism" and is noted as one of the founders of Modernism. Many of his plays were considered scandalous of his time.
Ibsen was influenced by Kierkegaard, Brandes, Jacobsen, and Strindberg. Later on, Ibsen's work influenced Chekhov, Stanislavski, Miller, and the ideas of Freud. 1860 to 1904 Anton Chekhov Anton Chekhov, Russia
Major Works:
"Three Sisters", 1901
"The Seagull", 1896
"Uncle Vanya", 1897
"Ivanov", 1887
"The Cherry Orchard", 1904
Major Russian playwright and master of the modern short story. He probed below the surface of life in his work--his characters had secret motives. The atmosphere he created made him different, expressed as being haunting or lyrical. Naturalism late 19th to early 20th Naturalism
(Literature and Visual Arts
Originated in France
A movement that was inspired by
an adaptation of the principles and
methods of natural science.
Influenced by Charles Darwin.
Theatre Libre founded in Paris
in 1887 to present plays dealing
with the new themes of naturalism
in a naturalistic style with
naturalistic staging. Marlowe 1564 Strindberg 1849 Realism late 19th Gilbert and Sullivan 1836 and 1842 Sturm and Drang 1771 to 1782 1906 to 1989 Samuel Beckett Ionesco 1909 to 1994 Jean Genet 1910 to 1986 Tennessee Williams 1911 to 1983 Postmodernism 1986 to Present Arthur Miller 1915 to 2005 Rodgers and Hart 1925 to 1943 Surrealism 1924 to 1966 Bertolt Brecht 1891 to 1956 Luigi Pirandello 1867to 1936 Dario Fo 1926 to Present Arnin Artaud 1896 to 1946 Johann G. Faust 1480 to 1540 William Shakespeare 1564 to 1616 1603 to 1868 Kabuki Moliere 1622 to 1673 Jean Racine 1639 to 1699 Restoration Comedy 1660 to 1710 The Servant of
Two Masters 1743 Sarah Siddons 1755 to 1831 She Stoops to
Conquer 1773 The School for
Scandal 1777 Hernani 1830 The Government
Inspector 1842 Moliere, France
Major Works:
The School for Wives, 1662
Tartuffe, 1664
The Misanthrope, 1666
The Imaginary Invalid, 1673
Moliere is only a stage name for Jean-Baptiste Poquelin. He was a French actor and playwright influenced by Italian commedia dell'arte and the Enlightenment, known as the creator of modern French comedy and a master of Comedy in Western literature. Conventional, religious, and medical leaders were critical of his work while Romanticists admired.
He defended comedy when it was thought to be of no moral purpose. Several phrases and words are still used today in the French language such as "tartuffe" and "harpagon". The Servant of Two Masters, Italy
Carlo Goldoni
Commedia dell'arte
The play was first written at the request of Antonio Sacco, the actor. The play incorporates the stock characters of commedia. Although the original script included large sections left open for improvisation, it was filled in later with script and strayed away from the fully improvised commedia of the time. Vaudeville 1890s to 1930s Expressionism late 19th to 20th George Bernard Shaw 1856 Thomas Holcroft 1745
Rodgers and Hart, America
Major Works:
On Your Toes(1936)
Babes in Arms(1937)
The Boys from Syracuse(1938)
Pal Joey(1940)
A Connecticut Yankee(1943)
Composer Richard Rodgers and lyrist Lorenz Hart met in 1925 at Columbia university and worked together until 1943 with Harts death. Rodgers and Hart quickly became some of the most popular songwriters in America. They wrote musicals twenty six for Broadway and nine movie musicals. Their first show was The Garrick Gaieties in 1925. This included their hit song. “Manhattan”.
Influenced by : Vaudeville , Musical Reviews, Ragtime and jazz music.
Influence: Many of their songs have become American standards. They were taken by jazz singers like Ella Fitzgerald. Songs like "Falling in Love with Love", "Little Girl Blue", "My Funny Valentine", Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered" and "You Took Advantage of Me" are commonly sung by jazz and blues singers. Even Elvis Presley adapted one of their songs, “Blue Moon”.
They are known for their cleaver rhymes, the integration of story and music which began to change the musical theater world. Arthur Miller, America
All My Sons (1947)
Death of a Salesman (1949)
The Crucible (1953)
Arthur Millar was a famous author and playwright, and screenwriter. He is considered one of the greatest American playwrights of all time. He was married to Marylyn Monroe form 1956 to 1961. All my sons was his first successful Broadway play for 300 runs in 1947. Death of a Salesman is one known as one of America’s greatest plays. It won a Pulitzer and a tony for best play. Follows Willie Lowman and his pursuit for the American Dream as his life unravels.
Influenced by Greek plays and playwrights, also by the plight of the common man.
Importance: Known for writing the greatest American Tragedy, Wrote honestly about the depression, social class and political issues, questioned individual rights. Death of A Salesman is known as one of the greatest tragedies of all time and has effected modern plays. Noh 1336 16th Century The Seagull 1895 Post Modernism 1870 Eugene O'Neil 1888-1953 Moscow Art Theatre 1897 Pantomimes 16th Century Group Theatre 1931 Eugenio Barba October 29, 1936 Grotowski August 11, 1933 Sunraku 1684 Eleanor 1858 Hattie 1895 Symbolism 1885 Samuel Beckett
1906-1963
Waiting for Godot (1953)
Endgame (1957)
Play (1963)
Samuel Beckett was an Irish playwright and novelist. Beckett’s works can fall under the categories of minimal theater and theater of the absurd. Most of his work has a very bleak outlook on human nature and usually tragic with lots of black humor. Most of his plays are very minimalistic and stark, some have no words written in them at all. Waiting for Godot is his most famous work, is about two tramps sitting and waiting for Godot to appear, he never does.
Influenced by Fellow Irishman James Joyce and Beckett helped to inspire each other’s work. World War II influenced Beckett’s life and the topics that he chose to write about.
Importance: His influence on Joyce was great and Joyce is considered to be on the last modernists. Beckett is considered to be the first postmodernist, his works were so opposite of realism. He opened up the theater world, creating work that broke the traditional plots, characters, and time. He is considered one of the greatest Theater of the Absurd authors, inspiring the genre with his sometimes political works that commented on the human condition. *Derived from the Japanese word for "Skill" or "Talent
*Major form of classical Japanese Musical Drama
*Characters are masked and men play male and female roles
*Actors and musicians only rehearse together once, a few days before the actual performance. Most rehearsals happen in the personal time of the performer.
*Consists of 250 plays Playwright and Poet
Canterbury, England
Works:
"The Jew of Malta", 1589 Education: The King's School
He influenced William Shakespeare in his
writing. Sources have claimed that in his time, he was a government spy. He was
also said to have been, homosexual and
an atheist. He died at the young
age of 29. "The Massacre of Paris", 1593 "Edward II", 1592 Meaning: "Storm and Stress"
German literary movement of the late 18th
century that exalted nature, feeling, and
human individualism and sought to
overthrow the Enlightenment cult of
Rationalism.

Goethe and Schiller began
their careers as prominent members of
the movement.

Plays surrounding the movement:
“Von deutscher Art und Kunst”
"Die Leiden des jungen Werthers"
The name of the movement was borrowed from a play by Friedrich von Klinger, who had been inspired by the desire to present on the stage figures of Shakespearean grandeur, subordinating structural considerations to character and rejecting the conventions of French Neoclassicism. Vaudeville was made of comedians,
singers, plate-spinners, ventriloquists,
dancers, musicians, acrobats, animal
trainers, and anyone who could keep
an audience’s interest for more than
three minutes.
Home to more than 25,000 performers.
The most popular form of entertainment in America of the time.
The form developed from the coarse variety shows held in beer halls for a primarily male audience. Tony Pastor established a successful “clean variety show” at his New York City theatre in 1881 and influenced other managers to follow suit. By 1900 chains of vaudeville theatres around the country included Martin Beck's Orpheum Circuit, of which New York's Palace Theatre was the most famous (1913–32). Among the many entertainers who began in vaudeville were Mae West, W.C. Fields, Will Rogers, Buster Keaton, Charlie Chaplin, the Marx Brothers,
Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, Milton Berle, and Bob Hope. Expressionism, Germany
1910- 1920
Major Works:
The Beggar – Reinhard Johannes Sorge
The Son – Walter Hasenclever
Antigone- Hasenclever (1916)
From Morn to midnight -Georg Kaiser (1916)
Expressionism became a term in Germany in 1910. This was a departure from Realism that is marked by human emotions and attitudes are put into inanimate objects, seeking of truth in humanities spiritual qualities ect.
They hated realism and naturalism because they focused too much attention on surface details. Expressionists argued that external reality is alterable and should be changed until it harmonizes with humanities spiritual nature. They focused more on the inner qualities and less on what can be seen.
After World War I expressionism changed from focusing on personal concerns to warnings of impending universal catastrophes.
Influence: It was a major movement against the conventions and devices of Realism starting the movement towards post modern theater. Once they were no longer banned in Germany after the war expressionism flourished and changed the theater scene there. It leads to the more militant approach of theater known as Epic Theater. Dario Fo, Italy
1926-
Mistero Buffo (1969)
We’re All in the Same Boat- But That Man Over There, Isn’t He Our Employer? (1974)
Trumpets and Raspberries (1981)
The Accidental Death of an Anarchist
Dario Fo was an innovative director; most of his work was farce like political satire. His early work such as He Had Two Pistols and with Black and White Eyes, focused on the middle class audiences. He then began to focus on the proletarian revolution, satirizing capitalism, church, and anything that was an enemy of his idiosyncratic communism he believed in. His troupe was called Collettivo Teatrale della commune (1970) Most of his productions were satirical and theatrically imaginative. He often used oversized puppet and mime performing in all kinds of spaces, gyms, outdoors ect.
Influenced by: Medieval jesters, medieval farce, improvisation, puppets, and mimes.
Influence: His plays are widely preformed at all levels. The use of puppets and mimes was unique and he brought it forward, 19997 he revived the Noble Prize in Literature. His political statements, satires and comments blazed the way for more playwrights to discuss the political topics. Surrealism, France

Major Works:
The Breasts Of Tiresias Guillaume Apollinaire (1903)
The Public –Federico Garcia Lorca (1930)
Backs to the Wall (1925)
Surrealism was another breakaway from realism. Its focus along with coinciding movements, cubism and futurism, attempted to discover the true nature of existence in a world where traditioal values hnave disintegrated and show that reason is mission. It was a bleak dark un knowing art from. Surrealist believed that imagination brought humankind closer to the fundamental truth of existence. They employed the use of grotesque, fantastical, and nonsense to liberate the mind from its dependence on reason. Influenced by Freud and psychology.
Influence: impacted Jean Cocteau and his work, Antigone, Orpheus, The Infernal Machine. Antonin Artaud began as a surrealist so most of his later work in theater of cruelty is affected by the surrealist movement. She Stoops to Conquer, London
Oliver Goldsmith
The play first opened at Covent Garden
Theatre as a comedy of manners play. It
was originally titled Mistakes of the Night.
John O'Keefe wrote a sequel called Tony
Lumpkin in Town. It is known as one of
the first plays of its type to endure and is
still being performed today. William Shakespeare, England
Major Works:A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 1590
The Taming of the Shrew, 1590
Romeo and Juliet, 1591
Hamlet, 1600
Macbeth, 1603
He is often referred to as, ”England’s National Poet” as a playwright of comedies, tragedies, histories, and tragicomedies (romantic comedies). His plays have been translated into every living language considered major. In addition, his plays are performed around the world more than any other playwright. Shakespeare also wrote sonnets, poems, and epitaphs. Although many of his pieces cannot be dated precisely, the influence of politics and London on his plays seem to date the majority of his works between 1589 and 1613.
He is known to have influenced the English language heavily through the invention of words, phrases, beliefs, and practices. He widened characterization, plot, language, and genre for playwrights to follow him. Shakespeare influenced Thomas Hardy, Charles Dickens, Freud, and actors of the past present and future. More of his plays are studied by a large population today than any other playwright. Kabuki, Japan
Major Works:
Kanadehon Chūshingura (Treasury of Loyal Retainers) - 1703
Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami (Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy) - 1746
Yoshitsune Senbon Zakura (Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees) – 1747
This style of Japanese theatre can be viewed as a dance-drama. The word Kabuki can be translated to “the art of singing and dancing”, “to be out of the ordinary” or “bizarre”. The style is best known for the style of drama it provides and the makeup worn during performance. The performances are broken into domestic, historical, or dance pieces. The pieces lasted the entirety of the day as an escape for the audience. The typical play almost always involves 5 acts. Sara Siddons, London
Major Works:
Belvidera in Venice Preserved – Thomas Otway, 1774
Calista in Fair Penitent – Nicholas Rowe, 1775
Isabella in The Fatal Marriage – Thomas Southerne, 1782
Lady Macbeth in Macbeth – William Shakespeare, 1791
Sara Siddons was a Welsh actress and perhaps the best-known tragedienne in the 1700’s. She was most famous for her very unique portrayal of Lady Macbeth. In her honor the Sarah Siddons Society was created and continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award in Chicago every year to a prominent actress. Her style of acting was referred to as "mythical" and "monumental," which led to her opportunity to socialize with the literary and social elites of her time. She made a name for herself as an actress and became a cultural icon in London. Symbolism began with a group of French poets in the late 19th Century and soon spread to the visual arts and theatre, finding its peak between about 1885 and 1910. French poet Jean Moreas published the Symbolist Manifesto in 1886 that greatly influenced the entire movement in the visual and performing arts.

Symbolism was considered to be a reaction against the plays that embodied naturalism and realism at the turn of the 20th Century. The dialogue and style of acting in symbolist plays was highly stylised and anti realistic/non-naturalistic.

Many of the sets and props in symbolist plays were also anti realistic/non-naturalistic and were often used to symbolise emotions or values in society.

In 1890 French poet Paul Fort opened the Theatre d’Art where many symbolist plays were performed. The primary symbolist playwrights included Belgian Maurice Maeterlinck and Frenchmen Auguste Villiers de L’Isle-Adam and Paul Claudel. Discards many of the ideas of modernism. Postmodernism rejects the notion of make-believe and insteads sees a performance as a real life experience that the audience should experience first hand. Standard plots and characterizations are minimized in this ism.It embraces human experiences in various forms and takes its inspiration from history, culture, and social issues.Concepts are developed by Aristotle. A good example would be David Hare's "Stuff Happens." Postmodernism forces the audience to reevaluate the boundaries between art and reality. Born October 16th, 1888, in New York City. From the age of seven to thirteen he attended Catholic schools. Then four years at a non-sectarian preparatory school, followed by one year (1906-1907) at Princeton University. He was an actor in vaudeville for a short time, and reporter on a small town newspaper. Began to write plays in the Fall of 1913. Wrote the one-act Bound East for Cardiff in the Spring of 1914. This is the only one of the plays written in this period that has any merit. In the Fall of 1914, he entered Harvard University to attend the course in dramatic technique given by Professor George Baker, buy he left after one year. Won a Pulitzer award for the plays "Beyond the Horizon","Anna Christie", and "Strange Interlude". O'Neill is also a Noble Prize winner.




Bound East for Cardiff (1914), Before Breakfast (1916), The Long Voyage Home (1917), In the Zone (1917), The Moon of the Carabbees (1917), Ile (1917), The Rope (1918), Beyond the Horizon (1918), The Dreamy Kid (1918), Where the Cross is Made (1918), The Straw (1919), Gold (1920), Anna Christie (1920}, The Emperor Jones (1920), Different (1920), The First Man (1921), The Fountain (1921-22), The Hairy Ape (1921 ), Welded (1922), All God's Chillun Got Wings (1923), Desire Under the Elms (1924), Marco Millions (1923-25), The Great God Brown (1925), Lazarus Laughed (1926), Strange Interlude (1926-27), Dynamo (1928 ), Mourning Becomes Electra (1929-31) , Ah, Wilderness (1932), Days Without End (1932-33). Novelist/Dramatist/
Critic/Translator
London, England
Works:
Anna St. Ives: A Novel (1792)
The Adventures of Hugh Trevor: A Novel (1794, 1797)
a play, The Road to Ruin: A Comedy (1792)
He is known as one of the most prominent and influential Jacobin authors. Scholars have argued that in his plays and in his novels Holcroft experimented with both content and form, believing that the purpose of literature was to educate and expand the thinking of the public. His works featured not only his ideas about social and political reform, but also strong moral messages.Holcroft is known for introducing the melodrame, a form of French theater featuring dialogue, music, dancing and pantomime, to English audiences. Ireland
Member of the Fabian Society
Advocate of the new theatre of Ibsen
Works:
Caesar and Cleopatra (1901)
Androcles and the Lion (1912)
Major Barbara (1905)
The Doctor's Dilemma (1906)
Pygmalion (1912)
Shaw's complete works appeared in thirty-six volumes between 1930 and 1950, the year of his death.
Won Nobel Prize in Literature in 1925 Arnin Artaud, France
1896-1948
Artaud began work as a surrealist but became well known for his work in Theater of Cruelty. His theory of theater was written down in Theater and Its Double in 1938. I this we see that Artaud believed that the more important aspects of existence are those in the unconscious. He did not think that he needed to appeal to the rational mind and that it was more important to play upon the senses and to break down the audiences defenses. He believed that in order to achieve theater of cruelty you must force the audience to confront itself. Theater of cruelty was not a physical cruelty but a moral and psychological cruelty. Artaud loved non conventional theater spaces, barns, airplane hangars, factories. He loved to have action in the corners of the space sometimes behind the audience, he liked overhead catwalks. He liked shrill sound and “vibrating” light. Artaud used these to break down the audience’s resistance breaking down all of their senses believing that “the public things first of all with its sense”
Artaud saw theater as a salvation for mankind. Believing that theater can make an impact in many ways and is not just an art form. Bertolt Brecht, Germany
1891-1956
Three Penny Opera (1928)
Mother Courage and Her Children (1938
The Good Woman of Setzuan (1938)
Brecht was a major player in the Epic Theater movement. He experimented with dada and expressionism in his earlier plays like Ball (1918). In 1933 Brecht went into exile during this time he wrote most of his plays. Brecht defined his work as epic because it was a broad sweep and it had a mixture of narrative and dramatic techniques. He tried to assign the audience an active role in the theater making them watch critically rather than passively. He used the term “alienation” which was making theater so strange that the spectators ask questions about it and remember that they are watching play. Brecht liked all the theatrical means to be visible so the audience remembered that they were watching a play, so the lights, musicians, scene changes were all visible. He also put in random songs or poetic passages in the middle of the dialogue in order to alienate the audience. Brecht wanted the audience to relate what they saw on stage to social and economic conditions. Luigi Pirandello, Italy
1867-1936
Right You Are-If You Think You Are (1916)
Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921)
Naked (1922)
Tonight We Improvise (1930)
Known as the greatest Italian playwright of his period. He first won fame through writing novels and short stories and began writing plays in 1910. He headed the Art Theater of Rome in 1924-1928. Most of his plays focus on a question that cannot be resolved because the characters each have their own version of the truth. Thus Pirandello questions the method of discovering truth and truth itself. Pirandello was concerned with the relationship between art and nature. He liked theater to a living statue.
Importance: He wrote many plays that focus on philosophical issues making it more common to write plays that deal with these themes. Jean Genet, France
1910-1986
The Balcony (1956)
The Screens (1961)
The blacks (1959)
Genet spent most of his life in prison, or as a vagabond this is reflected in most of his works. Most of Gents characters rebelled against organized society. Genet vied all systems of value as arbitrary making like a series of ceremonies and rituals. His plays were highly-stylized and usually ritualistic struggles between outcasts and oppressors. He often parodied social identities Ionesco, Romania
1912-1994
The Bald Soprano (1949)
The Lesson (1950)
Ionesco was an absurdist playwright who was concerned with man’s social relationships, focusing on the middle class. Most of his work focused on these two themes: the deadening nature of materialistic society, and the loneness and isolation of the individual. Most of his plays seek to discredit clichés, ideologies and materialism. He believed that truth means the absence of commitment, ideologically or esthetically, and commitment is conformity. Eugenio Barba, Italy
1936 to present
Ferai (1969)
My Father's House (1972)
Brecht's Ashes (1980)
Born in Italy but emigrated to Norway where he got a degree in French, Norwegian literature and History of Religions at Oslo University. In 1961 I went to Poland to learn directing from the State Theater School in Warsaw. In 1963 he went to India to study Kathakali a theater form that was unknown in the West and wrote essays on it. He returned to Oslo in 1964 and started his own theater troupe called Odin Teatret. This was one of the first theatre groups in Europe and they focused on training as a total. He has directed 76 plays with Odin Teatre. He invented the technique of bartering, which is an exchange of cultural expressions with a community or institution structured as a performance.
In 1979 he founded The international School of Theater anthropology and created a new field of study, Theater Anthropology. A form of musical comedy stage production, designed for families, developed in the United Kingdom and mostly performed during the Christmas and New Year season.

The Audience is expected to sing along with the performance.

Pantomime has a long theatrical history in Western culture dating back to classical theatre, and it developed some from the 16th-century commedia dell'arte tradition of Italy, as well as other European and British stage traditions like masques.

Classic pantomime stories include Cinderella, Aladdin, Dick Whittington and His Cat and Jack and the Beanstalk. A theatre company in Moscow that Stanislavski and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, founded in 1898. It was a venue for naturalistic theatre, in contrast to the melodramas that were Russia's popular form of theatre at the time. The theatre, which was the first to regularly put on shows implementing Stanislavski's system, proved influential in the acting world and in the development of modern American theatre.At the end of the 19th century, Stanislavski and Nemirovich-Danchenko both wanted to reform Russian theatre to high-quality art that was available to the public. Stanislavski and Danchenko’s initial goal of having an “open theatre,” one that anyone could afford to attend, was destroyed when they could neither obtain adequate funding from private investors, nor from the Moscow City Council. In 1931, three young idealists, Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg, were inspired by a dream of transforming the American theater. They recruited 28 actors to form a permanent ensemble dedicated to dramatizing the life of their times.

Their vision was of a new theater that would mount original American plays to mirror and even change the life of their troubled times. Over its ten years and twenty productions, they not only met these goals, but altered the course of American theater forever.The Group Theatre was a company based on an ensemble approach to acting.The Group Theatre believed what they were doing to be of great political significance.

Productions such as “Awake and Sing!,” “Waiting for Lefty, ” and “Paradise Lost” were the most memorable productions of the decade. By the late 1930’s however, the cohesiveness of the group began to crumble. The chronic financial problems and long-simmering disputes about “the method” began to chip away at their vision.

The Group Theatre has been called the bravest and most significant experiment in the history of American theater, and its impact continues on today. Hattie McDaniel was born on June 10, 1895, to a family of entertainers in Wichita, Kansas. She was her parents' 13th child. Her father, Henry, was a Baptist minister who played the banjo and performed in minstrel shows. Her mother, Susan Holbert, was a gospel singer.

In 1939, McDaniel accepted a role that would mark the highlight of her entertainment career. As Mammy, Scarlett O'Hara's house servant in Gone with the Wind, McDaniel earned the 1940 Academy Award for best supporting actress—becoming the first African American to win an Oscar.

Since playing Mom Beck in The Little Colonel, McDaniel had been attacked by the media for taking parts that perpetuated a negative stereotype of blacks; she was criticized for playing servants and slaves who were seemingly content to retain their role as such.

Her famous quote from that time is: " I'd rather play a slave than be one." Jean Racine, France
Major Works:
Phaedra, 1677
Andromaque, 1667
Les Plaideurs, 1668
Esther, 1689
Athalie, 1691
Racine was known for poetry and creating works of "neoclassical perfection". His writing style was known for having a sharp edge filled with speed, fury, and rage. There have been difficulties for even the best of poets to accurately translate the unique works of the tragedian.
His poetry was considered one of the largest contributions to French literature. He is known for his use of the alexandrine poetic line. Racine influenced by Euripedes, Aristotle, and Moliere while he influenced Stendhal, Marcel Proust, and Samuel Beckett.
School for Scandal
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
The prologue of the show was actually written by David Garrick as a way to commend all of the elements of the play. The show opened in London at Drury Lane Theatre. With five acts, the style relates closely to Shakespeare's style of play. The exposition is explained in full in the first act. A British silent film adaptation was made in 1923 by Bertram Phillips.
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