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Bible as Literature Introduction
Transcript of Bible as Literature Introduction
"Bible" - from ta biblia meaning "the book"
"Testament" = covenant or promise
Written over a 16oo year period by over 40 different authors.
There are 168,ooo Bibles sold or given away each day.
Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) - 39 Books
New Testament (Greek Bible) - 27 Books
What is the Bible?
The writings are between 2400 and 3400 years old.
The Pentateuch (The Law, Torah) Genesis-Deuteronomy.
Written by Moses
History - Joshua - Esther
These books chronicle the history of the Jewish people.
Poetry - Job- Song of Solomon
Hebrew poetry is a bit different from English poetry. It focuses on parallelism and counterbalancing of ideas and phrases.
Major Prophets - Isaiah - Daniel
They're called the major because of text size, not importance.
Minor Prophets - Hosea-Malachi
The Old Testament
The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and Aramaic.
It was passed down through manuscripts written on papyrus or leather.
When a copy began to show wear, they were given a ritual burial.
Manuscripts had to be had copied and checked for accuracy.
Old Testament Facts
But not just anyone could copy the text.
Professional scribes spent their entire life following rigid regulations used in making copies.
They counted verses, words, even letters of the law to ensure accuracy.
It was very sacred work. The Scribes had to take ritual baths before beginning work, and had to undergo ritual cleansing before writing the name of God.
Discovered in caves in Qumran between 1947 and 1956.
Contained complete or fragments of every book except for Esther.
They are the oldest surviving manuscripts.
Comparisons found only minor differences (such as spelling changes)
The Dead Sea Scrolls
The Gospels - Matthew - John
Chronicle the life and death of Christ.
Acts - "The Acts of the Apostles"
This follows the formation of the New Testament Church and the mission trips of the Apostles
The Epistles - Romans - Jude
These are the letters written to the local church and its leaders by the Apostles.
Prophecy - Revelation (of John)
This book covers the visions that John was given of the end of times.
The Greek New Testament
Criteria for inclusion into canon
One of the first things the leaders of the New Testament Church had to do was decide what was to be included as scripture.
Early leaders finally decided on 27 books that met this criteria:
Apostolic in origin - written by an apostle or close associate of an apostle.
Written during the apostolic period - the time up until John's death in 90
Generally accepted by the church and used widely in early worship services.
Teachings must adhere to already accepted scripture.
The Council of Carthage in 397 set up the 27 books we now accept as cannon.
The Latin Vulgate, written between 383 and 405 by Jerome, was the first official Bible of the Catholic Church.
It is important because it was used for thousands of years as the only version of the Bible available.
It was also used by the leaders of the Reformation when they began translating the Bible into English, Spanish, French, Italian, and German.
The Gutenberg Bible was a copy of the Vulgate.
Translating the Bible
What translations do we use and how are they different?
The Wycliff Bible in 1382 was the first complete Bible written in English.
It, too, was translated from the Latin Vulgate.
The King James Bible
Commissioned by King James the First in 1611.
54 Scholars used Greek and Hebrew texts to translate the entire Bible.
The King wanted language that was easy to read, yet dignified enough to read in church.
"Formal Equivalence" or a literal word for word translation.
The goal is to make the text more accurate to the original and still be readable in English.
Usually have a higher reading level, but is better for serious study because of the accuracy of words and grammar.
KJV, NKJV, ESV, NASB
Different types of modern translations
"Dynamic equivalence" or thought for thought.
Attempts to translate the thought of the passage rather than the actual words.
The goal is to make a readable text, but changes grammar and words.
NIV, HCSB, NLT
(The NIV and HCSB attempt to combine types, using thought for though where necessary for clarification)
Paraphrase is not an actual translation in the actual sense of the word.
Paraphrases are not based on manuscripts.
The Message and the Living Bible are paraphrases.
The Lord's Prayer
Wycliffe : oure fadir that art in heuenes halowid be thi name, thi kyngdom come to, be thi wille don in erthe as in heuene. Zive to vs this day oure breed other substaunch, & forzeue to vs oure dettis, as we forzeuen to oure dettouris, lede vs not in to temtaciun: but delyuer vs from yuel. amen.
KJV: Our father which art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our debts as we also have forgiven our debtors; And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen
NIV: “‘Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.
The Message: Our Father in heaven, Reveal who you are. Set the world right; Do what's best -- As above, so below. Keep us alive with three square meals. Keep us forgiven with you and forgiving others. You're in charge! You can do anything you want! You're ablaze in beauty! Yes. Yes. Yes.
The Lord's Prayer
KJV - All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.
NIV - All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting, and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be throughly equipped for every good work.
The Message - Every part of Scripture is God-breathed and useful one way or another - showing us truth, exposing our rebellion, correcting our mistakes, training us to live God's way. Through the Word we are put together and shaped up for the tasks God has for us.
II Timothy 3: 16-17
Old Testament Historical Periods
I. The Beginnings
Creation through Abraham
Includes: creation, the fall of man, the flood, the tower of Babel
Lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph
III. Slavery and the Exodus
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbes, and Deuteronomy
Moses, exodus from Egypt, the Law, the wilderness
IV. Conquest of Canaan
V. Hebrew Kingdom
Judges - I Kings 11
Samuel, Saul, David, Solomon