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Land and Water Biomes

Ecology Project by Mary West and Francisco Cordova

Mary West

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Land and Water Biomes

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Biomes of the World The ocean covers about 70% of the Earth's surface.

The global ocean is a single continuous body of water.

Geographers divide it into 5 areas: Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian, and Southern Oceans. Oceans
Coral Reefs 3 Types of Deserts Tropical Deserts
Temperate Deserts
Cold Deserts Location Tropical
Desert South & North Hemispheres
Between 5 and 30 degrees latitude –
Often found in continental interiors of the tropics Climate Rare sporadic rainfall, often none measured at all in a year - quickly absorbs into soil or evaporates
Extremes: hottest and driest area on earth
Highest amounts of sunshine of any climate The Pacific ocean is monsoonal. It has heavy rains during the summer and is dry during the winter.

The Atlantic ocean warm climate in the tropics with rains, and is cooler in the north.

The Arctic ocean has a continuous cold climate with rare natural warm climates.

The Indian Ocean is also a monsoonal area. It is subjected to severe cyclones and storms.

The Southern Ocean surrounds Antarctica and has a very cold climate with very rare warm weather. Climates: Temperate Desert Cold
Desert 3 Types of Grasslands Tropical Grassland (savanna)
Temperate Grassland (prarie)
Cold Grassland (arctic tundra) savemyoceans.com Animal/Plant Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Tropical
Grassland Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Cold
Grassland Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Temperate
Grassland Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other 3 Types of
Forests Tropical Rain Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Northern Coniferous Forest Tropical
Rain Forest Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Temperate
Forest Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Northern Coniferous
Forest Climate Location Animal/Plant
Adaptations Role in
the Ecosystem Other Animal/Plant Adaptations Animals have adapted to breathe under water for long periods of time.

Animals migrate from one ocean to the other to find food.

Predators and prey have developed different means of survival such as: camouflage, venom, physical strength, jaws, etc.

Plants have adapted to grow in areas where the sun is easily available and some animals find protection in these plants. Very little vegetation - ground-hugging shrubs & short woody trees
Leaves are packed with nutrients
Turpentine Bush, Prickly Pears, and Brittle Bush
Ability to store water for long periods of time
Ability to stand the hot weather
Animals (Jack Rabbit, Grey Wolf) are nocturnal hunters & sleep during the day to avoid the heat science.howstuffworks.com http://www.oocities.org/tear_920/ rawfor30days.com http://www.upafrica.com/landmarks/sahara.asp?n=3&s=9 Importance in Other Ecosystems Development by humans (Phoenix, Tucson, and Las Vegas)
Global Warming: A small change in temperature or precipitation can impact the desert greatly. The ocean provides water for all the bordering biomes through rain and other percipiation that is carried through the water cycle.

The phytoplankton that live in the ocean are responsible for most of the oxygen in the air and also play a role in the carbon cycle.

The ocean is responsible for patterns such as El Nino and La Nina. Desert Spiny Lizard camouflages itself & hides under shade Oceans Human interaction is not a benefit for the ocean beacuse:

Polution - plastic, oil spills, toxic chemicasl, etc. destroy life above and below the ocean.

Over fishing - Most animals rely on fish for food. When we fish more than can be reproduced, the fish become rare and so do their predators.

Global climate changes due to polution disrupt the ocean's cycles. How we affect the ocean: Green = Cold Desert knowledge.allianz.com Estuaries Locations: Locations: Climate: Water demand is increasing in many parts of the world, areas like tropical deserts that use very little water allow for more water to collect in areas that need it. Found in intermountain regions of the Western United States between the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountains Has characteristics of a sagebrush semidesert, with an obvious drought season and a short humid season
Ones in continental regions have low rainfall and strong temperature differences between summer and winter, which is when most precipitation happens
These deserts differ from lower latitude deserts in their greater annual temperature range and much lower winter temperatures
Some of their precipitation comes as snow, which doesn't happen in the dry tropic climates Like tropical deserts, most of the temperate desert’s vegetation consists of short shrubs & trees
The Bactrian Camel stores water & can use snow in the winter to get water, and it has transparent eyelids to keep sand out http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/2011_Trampeltier_1528.JPG/250px-2011_Trampeltier_1528.JPG http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/desert.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/desert.htm Deserts contain specialized plants and other vegetation that need to be preserved for the animals living there
There can be large mineral resources underneath deserts http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/deserts.php Mining has played a large role in degrading the natural resources found in the desert
Riding motorcycles, SUVs, and dune buggies in deserts hurts the already rocky and shallow soil, reducing its ability to absorb water, makes the landscape more susceptible to wind and water erosion, destroys vegetation and reduces lizard populations. http://desertsafariabudhabi.wordpress.com/2011/05/11/dune-buggy-ride-with-abet-desert-safari-abu-dhabi/ http://sandierpastures.com/dubai/dubai-desert-safari.html There is a moderately high amount of snow and rainfall during the winter
Soil is heavy and alkaline (not enough acidity)
Main form of precipitation in a cold desert is snow, but less than 10 inches per year
Cold air does not hold much water vapor, so the driest deserts on earth are the cold deserts in Antarctica
Some places in Antarctica haven't received any rain for 4 million years Some of the salt can come through the porous soil, so plant life can survive
The cold desert offers less than ideal conditions for sustaining delicate plants and animals
Most animals in the cold desert are burrowers, even the carnivores and reptiles which are cold-blooded, but have made their homes in the cold desert
Near the coast there are even two species of flowering plants, one of which is a grass
Deer and other larger herbivores are only found during the winter, as there is more grass during this time
In Antarctica, there are algae and bacteria in the lakes
When the cold is really bad, some of these organisms go into a sort of cryo-death, living in a frozen state of suspended animation Found on the peaks of high mountains and near the poles
Parts of the Antarctic are cold deserts
Inland mountains of Greenland are deeply buried in snowfields freshwaterbiomes.webnode.com Many species of plants and animals are already classified as endangered in the Arctic & Antarctic
In the Arctic, three species of seal are being considered for the endangered species list, and the polar bear is currently on the list.
Some scientists believe that all species of plants and animals living in cold deserts should be on the list because of the threat of global warming Deserts cover 1/5 of the earth's surface
While there are not huge amounts of animals on the land, the oceans and lakes found within cold deserts teem with life
Migrating birds swarm to some parts of the cold desert to raise their young
Seals live on fish in the arctic ocean, and polar bears prey on the seals. Walruses dig for clams on the sea bottom with their long tusks Estuaries are not restricted to specific climate regions.

Estuaries found near the North and South poles will have a colder climate, and those found near the equator will have a warmer and more tropical climate. http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/desert/cold-des.html Found between tropical rainforests and desert biomes.
They are found in a wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna.htm Always found in warm or hot climates
Annual rainfall is from about 20-50 inches
The rainfall must be concentrated in six or eight months of the year, followed by a long period of drought when fires can occur
If the rain were well distributed throughout the year, many areas would become tropical forests
Savannas which result from climatic conditions are called climatic savannas
Savannas that are caused by soil conditions and that are not entirely maintained by fire are called edaphic savannas
A third type of savanna, known as derived savanna, is the result of people clearing forest land for cultivation. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/savannah/ http://room42.wikispaces.com/Savanna+Climate Estuaries are bodies of water enclosed by land (partially) where fresh water mixes with saltwater from the ocean. Hayle sennen-cove.com New York eonfusion.com
Most of the animals on the savanna have long legs or wings to be able to go on long migrations, and many burrow under ground to avoid the heat or raise their young
The savanna is a perfect place for birds of prey like hawks and buzzards because the wide, open plain provides them with a clear view of their prey, hot air updrafts keep them soaring, and there is the occasional tree to rest on or nest in.
Animals don't sweat to lose body heat, so they lose it through panting or through large areas of exposed skin, or ears, like those of the elephant. Plants have adapted to growing for long periods in standing water, and they are highly specialized to grow in this environment of long periods of drought.
They have long tap roots that can reach the deep water, thick bark to resist fires, trunks that can store water, and leaves that drop off during the winter to conserve water.
The grasses have adaptations that discourage animals from grazing on them - some grasses are too sharp or bitter tasting for some animals, but not others, to eat, and different species will also eat different parts of the grass In many parts of the savannas of Africa people have started using it to graze their cattle and goats
They don't move around and soon the grasses are completely eaten up
With no vegetation, the savanna turns into a desert
Huge areas of savanna are lost to the Sahara desert every year because of overgrazing and farming The savanna has a large range of highly specialized plants and animals that all depend on the each other to keep the environment in balance
There are over 40 different species of hoofed mammals that live on the savannas of Africa. Up to 16 different species of browsers (who eat tree leaves) and grazers can coexist in one area
They do this by resource partitioning: having their own food preferences, browsing/grazing at different heights, time of day or year to use a given area, and different places to go during the dry season. http://savannaenvironment.wordpress.com/4/ sailsausalito.com San Francisco http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Savanna_tree%28js%29.jpg Animal/Plant Adaptations: Animals have to constantly respond to the drastic changes in the salinity of the water.

Only the species that are able to adapt to the salinity changes due to tidal cycles can survive.

Ex: "Smooth cordgrass has special filters in it's roots that remove salt from the water it absorbs" - oceanservice.noaa.gov http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands.htm http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands.htm Found in the middle latitudes, in the interiors of continents
They can have either moist continental climates or dry subtropical climates
North America: praries and plains of eastern Washington, the southwest & midwest.
Eurasia: the steppes from Ukraine eastward through Russia and Mongolia.
South America: the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay, and southeastern Brazil
Africa: the velds in the Republic of South Africa. Grasslands in the southern hemisphere tend to get more precipitation than those in the northern hemisphere (10-20 inches/year)
Temperatures can reach as low as 40° F in the winter, and in the summer it can be as high 70° F
There are two real seasons: a growing season and a dormant season. The growing season is when there is no frost and plants can grow, and during the dormant season nothing can grow because its too cold plants.usda.gov whatsonxiamen.com The soil in these areas is very rich and the land is flat and treeless, so most of this biome has been turned into farms or ranches
The result of this overuse and consumption of the grassland by agricultural practices is a fragmentation of once large tracks of grassland, and this decreases biodiversity
The plowing of grasslands, combined with wind has lead to huge dust storms, such as those which created the Dust Bowl
In dryer areas, overgrazing by cattle and salt buildup from irrigation of the land have turned these areas into near wastelands. It is hard for trees to compete with grasses in temperate grasslands because they need lots of rain that the praries do not get, and animals eat trees while they are small and they do not get a chance to grow
All grasslands share a lack of shelter from predators, and an abundance of grass for food, so grassland animal populations are similar throughout the world
The dominant vertebrates in grasslands are herbivorous or plant-eating grazers like horses and deer - their long legs help them run fast to escape grassland predators
The temperate grassland does not have much animal diversity, especially compared to the Savannah
Some animals that inhabit temperate grasslands in North America are bison, antelope, birds, gophers, prairie dogs, coyotes, and insects What Role Do Estuaries Play? http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/grassland.html http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/grassland.html Estuaries are part of the water cycle. Most evaporation happens here and is carried back to inland biomes as percipitation.

Estuaries play a role in nutrient and element recycling. These are consumed by organisims to maintain the estuary healthy.

The estuaries bring water back to the ocean that was brought as percipitation. http://www.defenders.org/grasslands/temperate-grasslands Grasslands are very agriculturally useful to humans, but we have to be careful to not overuse them
Soils tend to be deep and fertile, which perfect for cropland or pastures.
Much of the North American prairielands have been converted into one of the richest agricultural regions on Earth. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/grassland-profile/ http://forages.oregonstate.edu/nfgc/eo/onlineforagecurriculum/instructormaterials/availabletopics/grasslands/temperate How do we affect our estuaries? Located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the taiga
Found at latitudes 55° to 70° North
Found in Northern Alaska, Canada, and Siberia Polution - causes water to become poor in quality. Organisims that live here die faster because of waste carried by the rivers. The growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days
The average winter temperature is -30° F, but the average summer temperature is 37-54° F, which enables this biome to sustain life
Rainfall may vary in different regions of the arctic - yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 6 to 10 inches
A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists, consisting mostly of gravel
When water saturates the upper surface, bogs and ponds may form, providing moisture for plants http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/tundra.php biomessixth10.wikispaces.com http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/tundra-profile/ Coral Reefs 1,700 different species of vegetation in the tundra, which is low - these are mostly shrubs, sedges, mosses, lichens and grasses
There are no trees, except for some birches in the lower latitudes - permafrost prevents trees from extending their roots very far
The soil is very low in nutrients and minerals
There is low biodiversity - animals include slightly modified shrews, hares, rodents, wolves, foxes, bears and deer
There are huge herds of caribou in North America which feed on lichens and plants
Wolves, wolverines, arctic foxes, and polar bears are the predators of the tundra Global warming makes the fall freeze come later and more of the permafrost is melting in the southern Arctic
Trees that previously couldn't take root on the permafrost now show up on the landscape, potentially altering the habitat of the native animals.
Another major concern is that the melting of the permafrost is contributing to global warming - until recently, the tundra acted as a carbon sink and captured huge amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as part of photosynthesis
This process helped keep the amount of this greenhouse gas from accumulating in the atmosphere
Today, however, as the permafrost melts and dead plant material decomposes and releases CO2, the tundra has changed from a carbon sink to a carbon contributor http://www.ehow.com/about_7222003_arctic-health-issues-animals-plants.html http://biomeh.wikispaces.com/Tundra Locations: http://cispatm.pbworks.com/w/page/9850567/Arctic%20Tundra Climate: The Arctic tundra, like other ecosystems, does not exist in isolation.
The health of the tundra is influenced by the quality of existance of two other biomes, the taiga and ice caps
Plants may not grow if the surrounding ice caps do not melt and provide additional water
If water is available then trees can grow in the taiga or the subarctic conifer forests coralreefinfo.com Coral reefs are only located near the equator where warm water is readily available.

Currents that bring food such as phytoplankton are also important for the growth of coral reefs. ( A warmer climate means more phytoplankton) http://www.adventures.ca/gasnet/623-1.htm http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rainforest.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm Located in the tropics - band around the equator from 23.5 N (the Tropic of Cancer) to 23.5 S (the Tropic of Capricorn)
Found at elevations below 3,000 feet. Monthly temperatures are usually above 64 ° F
Precipitation is often more than 100 inches a year
In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season, but the heavy rainfall for the rest of the year average it out http://djackson9.edu.glogster.com/biome-tropical-rainforest-3686/ http://www.kbears.com/climates/printtropical.html Plants have grooved or textured leaves to shed water so they do not bend or break
Leaves in the upper canopy are dark green, small and leathery to reduce water loss in the strong
Some trees will grow large leaves at the lower canopy level and small leaves in the upper canopy
Many trees have buttress and stilt roots for extra support in the shallow, wet soil of the rainforests
Animal life is highly diverse
Adaptations found among mammals and birds include bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm Deforestation is increasing because the worlds population is growing rapidly and more products that come from forests, such as wood and plants to make medicine, are needed
Ranching and logging are other causes
Major climatic and environmental changes will occur if this continues
Destroying rainforests causes more carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere, resulting in global warming oceanworld.tamu.edu Animal/Plant Adaptations They provide a habitat for plants and animals
They regulate the climate by storing and releasing water and turning CO2 into oxygen
They help to prevent soil erosion by decomposing the dead trees & animals to provide nutrients to the poor soil
They hold many plants used for 25% of the world's medcine Both predators and prey have adapted to hunt and hide in the vast areas of the coral reef.

Some predators use camouflage, some use numbers, while others hunt at different times of the day.

For defense, some animals hide in the crevices, others can camouflage, and some are poisonous.

The plants grow where sunlight is available, and sponges and coral rely on the currents to bring food. inkfish.fieldofscience.com Found in the eastern parts of North America, in western Europe, in China, Korea, Japan and Australia http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_forest.htm http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_forest.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm Four distinct seasons with obvious temperature differences
They get 30 and 60 inches of precipitation a year and it happens year round
The soil is very fertile and hardwood trees are good for building, so this biome has some of the world's largest centers of populations Animals adapt to the climate by hibernating in the winter and living off the land in the other three seasons
The trees provide shelter for wandering animals
They also use the trees for food and as a water source
Most of the animals are camouflaged to look like the ground
The plants have adapted to the forests by leaning toward the sun and soaking up the nutrients in the ground http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm What is the role of the Coral Reef? http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm The biggest threat to temperate forests is development and agriculture
Other threats to the forest come from logging - most of the trees here are hardwoods, which means they have a denser wood than most other trees
They may grow more slowly, too, which means more pressure to cut the trees in order to keep up with demand
Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threat, as is global warming, which may change rainfall patterns The reef proviedes food and shelter for marine animals.

Barriers that protect the coasts from violent storms.

Sand for beaches is produced mainly in the reefs and carried by waves to shore.

Is a breeding ground for most crustaceans and other orgnisims. Forests provide a home for many plants, animals, and humans
They convert CO2 to oxygen
If we take steps to prevent the forests from becoming extinct, they will continue to provide for many types of life on earth http://www.tripcentury.com/?p=2914 http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/deciduous3/deciduous3.html Coral Reef and Human Interaction: Because of polution, most reefs have been destroyed. This is because coral reefs cannot survive without clean water.

Global warming causes the coral to become sick and die because they cannot adapt to a warmer climate than what they are used to.

Some legal movements have been made to try to help the coral reef by: warning visitors to treat them with caution, and by building artificial reefs to replace those destroyed. Lakes
Rivers and Streams Located in a vast area below the tundra, extending completely across Canada and into interior Alaska
Found in 50° to 60°N latitude Long and warm growing season
Precipitation averages 20 inches per year, but ranges from 40 inches in the eastern regions to 10 inches in interior Alaska
Available soil moisture is high as a result of cool temperature
Mineral soils are generally thin and poorly drained Lakes Rivers and Streams Much of the northern coniferous forest of Europe and the eastern United States has suffered from the affects of acid deposition, which is the depositing of acids in both solid and liquid form
The most common form of acid deposition is acid rain - much of the source of sulfur is from industrial activities
Acid raub can severely damage the structure of pine needles making them vulnerable to invasion by other diseases and organisms
Soils in which the plants grow are acidified and become toxic to plant root There is little edible food for many animals as the resinous conifer leaves make them quite distasteful to most animals
Food for larger animals is sparse and they are likely found where wind or fire has created openings in the forest for deciduous shrubs such as birch, aspen and willow to invade and colonize.
Trees in the northern coniferous forest primarily possess pine needles instead of broad leaves like those found in the south
Being dark in color they absorb what little light falls on their surfaces
They keep their needles at the end of the growing season so they do not have to waste energy to produce new ones later Locations: https://www4.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/biomes/biomes_northern_forest.html https://www4.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/biomes/biomes_northern_forest.html http://inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/terres/coniferous/c_forest.htm Its trees make up one of the world's largest "carbon reservoirs" - carbon stored in this way is carbon not released into the atmosphere, where it would trap heat and accelerate global warming
Its wetlands filter millions of gallons of water each day
As a vast and intact forest ecosystem, it still supports a natural food web, complete with large carnivores like bears, wolves and lynx along with thousands of other species of plants, mammals, birds and insects http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/taiga/taigafloor.jpg Sources http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/deserts.php
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm Mongrove Forest
Inland Wetlands
Mountains Climate: The climate varies with the seasons. During the summer the water temp. is about 22 degrees Celcius, and during the winter the water is frozen. (Unless the lake is near the equator or is large enough)

During the spring and fall, the temperature is more uniform. ultrafeel.tv kingdomcome.org Animal/Plant
Adaptations Plants grow on land, near the water's edge, and even underwater. Some such as the lilies, float to exange CO2 and O2.

Different species have adapted to live in or near the freshwater. Such are: frogs, many fish, aquatic birds, turtles.

In large lakes crocodiles and aligators use surprise attacks while others use the lake as drinking source. teachenglishinasia.net pl.atyp.us People and Lakes Lakes have 3 different zones: The area close to the shore is the littoral zone, the top area around the center or "open water" is the limnetic zone, the bottom of the lake is the profundal zone.

Lakes have very high levels of pullution which leads to contaminated fish and other animals and plants.

Overfishing greatly damages the biodiversity in the lake because fish are not able to reproduce as much and animals that consume dead organisims in the profundal zone don't have enough food as well as animals in the limnetic zone. This leads to species becoming endangered or extinct. lakeaccess.org Role in the Enviornment As bodies of water, lakes provide the land with percipitation due to the water cycle.

The lakes provide a means of food for some land dwellers such as beavers and platapi.

Lakes are a part of the phosphat cycle because some layers of phosphorus have become trapped whitin the sediment layer at the bottom, benthic zone. Locations: Climates: Because the are all around the world, the climate varies.

The temp. is usually cooler at the source thatn the mouth. Usually there is a moderate of rain and precipitation.

Rivers and Streams that are farther north and south will freeze easily around winter, while those near the equator will tend to have a more tropical climate with warmer waters. freshwaterbiomes.webnode.com nature.desktopnexus.com Animals/Plants Both animals and plants have adapted to live in freshwater and could not survive in water that had high levels of salt.

Some mamals have adapted to live near water where they are able to fish and hunt for food.

Some reptiles and fish are able to camouflage with the water and appear to be logs such as crocodiles.

Many fish have sharp teeth and jaws that can be used to attack larger animals. Ex: Pirhannas. ra-re.org Importance in other Biomes Rivers act as drains for land biomes. They drain about 75% of the Earth's surface.

Rivers also carry sediment with the current and form new "land" in other places of its path.

They provide habitats for many marine organisims as well as a means of food for other terestrial animasl. Ex: Bears.

The water from rivers ends up in estuaries where it mixes with salt water and returns to the ocean which will return water as precipitation. How are Rivers affected by Human Interaction? Polution - is carried throuhg the water where it will end up in many different places such as: Oceans, costal shores, water edges, etc.

Urbanization - increases the chances of precipitation and causes runoffs and flooding.

Overfishing - disrupts the biodiversity in the ecosystems and causes species to become scarce. rekkerd.org Mangrove Forests marietta.edu Climate: Mountains Inland Wetlands Locations: wetlands.org Mangrove forests are made up of magrove trees that have adapted to live on the edge of rainforests where thay meet the ocean.

The typical climate is warm and humid. The trees grow around water and there is usually plenty of precipitation.

Mangrove forests are tropical and can only grow near the equator where both water and lots of sun is readily available. mbgnet.net Animals and Plants The mangroves themselves have adapted to live in the warm tropical waters. Their placement slows the water flow and prevents erosion in the coasts.

These trees have also adapted to the salty fresh water. Their roots filter the salt from the water.

Many fish, crustaceans, shelfish and more have adapted to live within the roots of the mangroves for protection.

Fishing birds, monkeys, cats and other predators are able to feast on the vegetation and prey that this habitat can offer. scientificamerican.com autarkytours.com What role do these forests play? The forests slow the water's flow to protect coasts from harmful waves.

The roots help prevent erosion that could benefit or harm any other aquatic biomes.

Provides a habitat for many differnt species in other biomes such as estuaries.

Provides food and protection for some terrestrial animals. Human Interaction The areas where mangrove forest grow have been used for timber, mines, etc.

During the 70s and 80s, these forests were used as shrimp farms and the plan later backfired when the shrimp failed to easily survive and adapt in the enviornment.

Many governments have made strict laws that help protect these enviornments. Ex: "fishfarmers in Indonesia who have about 4 hectacre of land are required to plant mangroves in 20% of it." Climate: Wetlands can be found all over the world in many different habitats and climates but are commonly refered to as warm water wetlands.

Wetlands are usually filled with lots of vegetation, thus these plants prefer a warmer climate (tropical) with lots of precipitation.

Some examples of wetlands are: swamps, marshes and bogs. (All which are located in warm tropical waters with moderate amounts of rain) nhdfl.org Animal/Plant
Adaptations Mangrove trees can also grow in swamps and marshes due to the warm water and climate.

Moss is perhaps the best adaptable plant in a wetland because it can grow in acidic conditions in which the only source of nourishment is precipitaiton.

Beavers have adapted to wetlands and form their shelters, dams, in the water.

Reptiles such as alligators have adapted to catch prey by swiming at fast speeds and attacking with "sucker punches". arkansasoutdoorsonline.com Importance in Other Biomes Wetlands help prevent flooding by absorbing the water. By doing so, they maintain the river levels normal.

They purify the water by filtering sedimentation and preventing erosion, through trees and plants.

Provides food and shelter for both terrestrial and aquatic animals.

Wetlands store water when there is heavy rains, and release it when water is low. Thus it provides a constant water (drinking) source for terrestrial animals. Human Interaction: The wetlands provide us with rich and natural water. However, polution greatly reduces the quality of the water as well as killing biodiversity.

The wetlands protect the land from floods, but due to deforestation and such, runoffs cause floods and erosion problems.

Many people's market and sales economy is based on fish and shrimp for example. These creatures are available in this habitat, however if profit is more important than their reproduction, this ends in overfishing. lorenzsokseedsllc.com Locations: Climates: The temperature on a mountain tends to be warmer at the "foot" and colder at the tip (top).

Mountains in the north will have a colder climate than those near the equator.

Mountains in the south will be partially or completelly frozen due to the proximity to the south pole.

Compared to the flat land around them, mountains will have a wetter climate with more drastic changes in precipation. Animal/Plant Adaptations Animals have adapted to live in the slopes of mountains. Some have heavy coats of hair for protection against the cold heights of the mountain.

A mountain has two sides, the windward side facing the wind direction which receives more precipitation and moisture, and the leeward side which recieves the "scraps" of moisture and rain.

Because of the windward side, plants will be more active and will grow stronger than those on the leewards side. Most times, deserts are formed due to the windward side of a mountain. apollo.lsc.vsc.edu Envornmental Role The leeward side of mountains gets very little precipitaion, as a result deserts will easily form due to lack of moisture.

They allow for different types of biodiversity and provide a habittat for many animals and plants. Provide a home for human civilization and contain historical civilizations. (Houses about 17% of World Population)

Provide a place of growth for coniferous forests and other forests along the windward side of the mountain.

Are storehouses of water during winter that is released as streams in the spring. (part of water cycle) Climate: iamisleen.blogspot.com Mountains and Humans Mountains provide farmers with pastures in which their animals can graze.

For the most part, mountains make travel difficult for humans as well as difficult to live, in some areas.

Pollution in the air kills biodiversity and creates hazards to animals, this is because animals already have to deal with radiation due to altitude. Sources www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/estuaries.html
http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/fact5.cfm http://www.science-house.org/nesdis/coral/HTML_Presentation/sld011.htm

http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/lakes/pond.htm

http://digitalsportsman.com/wetlands/anim.htm http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/wetlands/why.htm

http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=1030 Locations:
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