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Conflict In Darfur

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Davinder Jangra

on 1 April 2016

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Transcript of Conflict In Darfur

Conflict In Darfur
Darfur is found in western Sudan
A Darfur Refugee Camp
Made By: Davinder, Joshua, Saswat, Dildeep and Sukhman
The War of Darfur

A Conflict between

Sudan Government
Omar- al Bashir
Sadiq- Al Mahid
The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army

The Justice and Equality Movement
2 Factions
For the peace treaty
Not for the peace treaty
Minni Minnawi
Abdul Wahid Al Nur
Splinter Factions
Osman Ibrahim Musa
Adam Ali Shogar
Mohammed Al Zubeir Khamis
Khalil Lbrahim
Gibril Lbrahim
History of the war
Febuary 2003
JEM and SLM/A accused
Sudanese Government
JEM military vehicle
JEM Militia
SLM Troops
SEM Rebels
Southern Sudanese Military
Sudanese military rally
Village burning
Genocide Victim
Genocide Victim
Refugee Camp
A ceasefire agreement is called
The symbol of the african union
April 8 Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement between the Sudanese government and the two rebel groups, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A). Other signatories on April 8 were Chad and the African Union. The ceasefire was to come into effect on April 11, 2004.
A group splintered from the JEM in April — the National Movement for Reform and Development — which did not participate in the April cease-fire talks or agreement. Janjaweed and rebel attacks have continued since the ceasefire.
Janjaweed attack
Rwandan Troops
Nigerian Troops
Febuary 2010 A ceasefire
was called
Ceasefire is disrupted
Soldiers of the UN
Question 1: SASWAT
Question 2 BY: DAVINDER
The war in Darfur was a guerrilla conflict or civil war centered on the Darfur region of Sudan. It began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs. For the period October-December 2004, estimated that there were 1.65 million internally displaced people in Darfur and 2,279,266 people had been affected by the conflict. In this essay I will delve into the responses made be international organizations. I will also scrutinize the perspective of the non-Arabs. Lastly, I will look at the perspective of the government of Sudan. Firstly, International organizations believe that the war should stop and genocide should be eliminated. In 2011, in order to create a more effective and collective voice dedicated to preventing and eliminating genocidal violence, the Genocide Intervention Network and the Save Darfur Coalition merged to establish United to End Genocide, which was occurring in Darfur. They believed if they teamed up together they could end genocide which was occurring in Darfur. The merger created the largest anti-genocide campaign that encompasses a membership base of Over 800,000 global activists, a mass student movement and a network of institutional investors with over $700 billion in assets. Facilitating adequate and unhindered humanitarian aid; establishing conditions for the safe and voluntary return of displaced people to their homes; promoting the long-term sustainable development of Darfur; and holding the perpetrators accountable. Also, in 2012, STAND transitioned into an independent organization. STAND provides students with creative and effective national campaigns, organizing materials and resources, educational information, policy and advocacy training, and a network of informed and active peers. All of STAND's programs and policies are consistent with the Responsibility to protect report, endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly in 2005. Also, building 850 different schools in Darfur. Overall, International organizations want to help in stop the war in Darfur by stopping genocide. Also, giving students an opportunity to learn.
Secondly, the perspective of the non- Arabs is that they are not being treated fairly and the Arabs are being racist towards them just because they are “black” and believe this is injustice towards them. In the beginning of 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa people of Sudan complained that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign. Sudanese Arabs, who control the government, are widely referred to as practising apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens. The government is accused of "deftly manipulating Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing against non-Arabs in Darfur. Arabs view “blacks” with disfavor. In Darfur, non-Arabs were captives and were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often used sexually, with their Arab captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission. Slaves have been sold for US$50 apiece. Non-Arabs believed this was total injustice towards them. A large section of the population in Darfur, particularly the non-Arab ethnicities in the region, became increasingly marginalized. This made the non- Arabs filled with hatred towards the Arabs and they started to make rebels towards the government. The two main groups were: Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army fights for non-Arabs equal justice and power sharing. The Justice and Equality Movement also fight along with the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and fight for the same cause and have total members of 35,000. This war has caused up to 300,000 people have died from the combined effects of war, hunger and disease and more than 2.7 million people have fled their homes and now live in camps near Darfur's main towns in the fight for the non-Arabs equality and justice. Overall, the non-Arabs believe that they should have the same power and justice as the Arabs do.
Lastly, the perspective of the government of Sudan is that they don’t care about non-Arab people and won’t give them justice. I interpreted this because when Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) - took up arms against the Sudanese government, complaining about the marginalization of the area and the failure to protect sedentary people from attacks by nomads. The government of Sudan responded by unleashing Arab militias known as Janjaweed, or “devils on horseback”. Sudanese forces and Janjaweed militia attacked hundreds of villages throughout Darfur. Over 400 villages were completely destroyed and millions of civilians were forced to flee their homes. This means that the government does not care about or even want to listen to the non-Arabs. Overall, I believe that the government does not care about non-Arabs because they are favoring the Arabs.

In conclusion, the international organizations want to help stop the war by stopping genocide, the non-Arab people want justice and want to have the same power as the Arab people, the government hates non-Arab people and won’t give them justice. This reminds me of when Hitler took away Jewish people because he hated them. He took them to concentration camps where they are away from their families and demolished their houses and wouldn’t give them freedom or justice and in the end he will just kill them in a painful way. This is what is happening in the war in Darfur; non-Arabs are fighting for their lives for freedom and justice and are getting killed on the way. Will non-Arabs ever feel freedom or achieve justice?

Question 3 BY: SUKHMAN
Question 4: JOSHUA
Question: 5 BY: DILDEEP
The book Boy in the striped pajamas’ take place during the World War 2 which is a conflict, just like the conflict in war in Darfur. People were losing their homes in the looks of the Jewish people are compelled to follow Hitler to his painful plans and in the war in Darfur, people were feeling the same pain as their house were being destroyed and losing their family's.
How we effect change
International Orginizations
Trying to convince the government to help
Ending the violence against civilians;
Facilitating adequate and unhindered humanitarian aid;
Establishing conditions for the safe and voluntary return of displaced people to their homes;
Promoting the long-term sustainable development of Darfur; and
Holding the perpetrators accountable.
850 different schools
"A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths are just a statistic." -Joseph Stalin
The factors that affect and lead someone to these responses is because of the unequal distribution of power and land in the western Sudanese region of Darfur. Sudan has a big problem against the government. The government in Sudan allows Islamic law to rule even though a small part of Muslims are in the country. Since, 1956 a lot of Sudanese people were excluded from their own government. Peace could not occur unless the government changes and accepts all religions and cultures to exist.
In 2003, conflict began after two-non Arab rebel groups went up against the Arab-dominated government. The frustration and anger had caused violence, when rebel groups called the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attacked the government installation in Darfur. In response of this attack, the Sudanese government recruited a local Arab military force, known as the Janaweed. The Janaweed had interest in gaining control over the territory which was taken over by the rebel fur, Zaghawa and Masaalit groups. Within a year tactics like bombings of hospitals, schools, and civilians targeted for death such as murder. Many people had died, while thousands had fled to westward to neighbor in Chad.
In 2004, a ceasefire declared and the arrival of the African Union (AU) troops in Darfur had failed to stop the violence and the humanitarian crisis. In 2005, the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ended the Sudanese civil war between the North and South. But the Conflict of Darfur was not over.
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