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A2 Sociology Unit 3 Mass media lesson 1

Lesson 1

Amanda Lane

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of A2 Sociology Unit 3 Mass media lesson 1

who is this?
Mass Media
Transnational Corporation(TNC)
Cross-media ownership
Media conglomerate
Vertical Integration
Key terms
Live Nation Entertainment is the world’s leading live entertainment and eCommerce company, comprised of four market leaders: Ticketmaster.com, Live Nation Concerts, Front Line Management Group and Live Nation Network.

Ticketmaster.com is the global event ticketing leader and one of the world’s top five eCommerce sites, with over 26 million monthly unique visitors.

Live Nation Concerts produces over 20,000 shows annually for more than 2,000 artists globally.

Front Line is the world’s top artist management company, representing over 250 artists.

These businesses power Live Nation Network, the leading provider of entertainment marketing solutions, enabling over 800 advertisers to tap into the 200 million consumers Live Nation delivers annually through its live event and digital platforms.
Live Nation Entertainment
Walt Disney
News Corporation
Time Warner

So how many portions are there of the global mass media cake?
A large company that operates, and has outlets in many different countries.

When a company owns a range of media forms.

When a company is involved with all stages of media production.

A large scale organisation that owns a large number of companies that specialise in different types of mass media.

The means of communicating to vast numbers of consumers either visually, verbally or through text.
Transnational Corporation (TNC)
Match the Term with the correct definition!
What do you notice about Apple’s products and services?
317 retail outlets in 96 countries.
Products include:
Facts about apple
If mass media were a cake, how big are the portions?
Ownership and control
Mass media
What do you think are the benefits and limitations of global mass media ownership?
Why is the iphone a mass media revolution?
The Iphone…
Do you think that the news portrays a balanced view of the world?
Ideological state apparatus
Key Terms
Perspectives, content and news values
The news and current affairs
Human Interest
Visual Impact
News stories that
make it to
broadcasting or print
have done so through
fulfilling certain
News Values
Marxists argue that
the news is part of
ideological state
apparatus and
projects the
interests of the
ruling class. It is those
in a position of
authority and power
that ultimately decide
on the content of the
news. It is a way of
ensuring ideological
Pluralists argue that
the news is presented
to us in the way that
we want. Because
there is a variety of
news representations
we have a choice as
consumers. The
diverse nature of the
news reflects our
diverse society and
encompasses the views
of everyone.
Theoretical Perspectives
Who has the most convincing perspective on the news?
Language? Pictures?
Who/what is the main focus?
How does each story
fulfill the criteria?
Newspaper Analysis
What would a pluralist say about each story?
How informative is each story?
Analyse each story from a Marxist perspective
What do you think each story is trying to achieve?
Breaking stories
Political Influence
Time and space
News stories must reflect the interests of the consumers.
News stories are for making money!
Each newspaper/news channel has its own perspective and take on issues (Bias).
You cannot report all of the news, all of the time!
Find a story that has been on the news recently.
Analyse the story to see if it influences public opinion.
Your task…..
(Should you choose to accept!)
What is the media representation of this group of people?
How does it make you feel?
Describe what you see in this picture.
The systematic exclusion or inclusion of certain types of content. Inclusion of content relates to dominant ideology as well as mainstream cultural views.
Active Gatekeeping
Do you think that the Media encourages prejudice towards minority groups?

Why do you think the Media does this?

Whose interest is it in?
Social Control?
Are we a product of social control?
What are the modern day Moral Panics and Folk Devils?
Stan Cohen (1972) Study of Mod’s and Rockers
Secondary Deviance: a reaction to police crackdown of initial deviance that causes further deviant behaviour in response.
The media portrays and incident to seem worse than it is.
Causes others to join in E.g. Riots.
Deviancy Amplification is an increase in deviant behaviour as a direct response to media representation.
Deviant groups (Folk Devils) are seen as a concern to the stability of society by the media. This is then in turn portrayed to the public.
Mass Media Effects
“Nothing can have value without being an object of utility.”

Karl Marx
Focus on specific types of criminals
Minorities are labelled as deviant
White collar crime is usually overlooked
Protects the interests of the ruling class.
Over emphasised, exaggerated and sensationalised crime causes people to become afraid and change their habits.
False impressions of crime rates and statistics.
Stereotyping of certain minorities and sub-cultures.
Conscious choices made by viewers
Media has to appeal to a heterogeneous audience
Viewers choice is made to fulfil a specific need
Sport for men, Corry for older people etc.
A Positivist approach - The media injects messages into a passive, homogeneous audience; the audience reacts ­by a simple process of cause and effect. The media has immediate direct effect on people's attitude and behaviour e.g. copycat crimes and violence, Aids awareness campaigns led to increased condom use. Little attention given to how audiences experience or interpret media.
Models and Theories
Does violent media insight violent behaviour?
The means of communicating to vast numbers of consumers either visually, verbally or through text.
What is mass media?
How many types of media can you identify?
App store
Reinforce stereotypes
Political views/ideology
Mainstream Consensus

People respond in 3 ways: Dominant, Negotiated, Oppositional.
Hypodermic Syringe Model
Active Audience Model
Uses and Gratifications Model
Cultural Effects Model
Images and ideologies are filtered gradually
Sub-conscious and indirect messages
Stereotypes, dominant ideologies, political views
Effect is not immediate
Fear of crime and violence
Scapegoating and labelling
Folk Devils and Moral Panics
LO: To analyse the ways in which the media influence our opinion.
LO: To assess the reasons how and why media messages are targeted at different audiences
Many sociologists believe that the media influences behaviour and the way in which we think.....
What do you think?
Bandura's (1963) infamous bobo doll experiment can be used as evidence to support this theory
The idea that children are subjected to many media images of violence that they come to see it as normal
Feminism and the HSM
Some feminists have argued that there is a positive causal link between pornography and sexual violence stating that "pornography is the theory, rape is the practice"
How might other sociologists argue against this perspective?
Media violence can provide people with an outlet for aggressive tendencies
The notion that being exposed to media violence will allow people to see the emotional effects and subsequent consequences of such actions
What evaluative points can you deduce from using this type of experiment?
Two-step flow
Opinion leaders (people who influence others) are exposed to media messages. They then interpret these messages and pass on their opinions to others. People chose whether to accept or reject this message according to how it is presented by the opinion leader.
Personal relationships
Personal identity
The 4 basic needs of the media
Dominant - Most people are likely to go along with media messages (consensus).
Oppositional - A minority will oppose.
Negotiated - Audiences may reinterpret media messages to fit in with their own lives
Can you think of examples to support this?
The media is POLYSEMIC - it attracts more than one type of reading!
Marxist theory looks at the idea that the media is a powerful influence in projecting capitalist values.

Neo Marxists
Tend to adopt the Cultural effects model. They argue media constantly communicates ruling class ideology to
lower classes and most people come to accept pro-capitalist viewpoint.
How can you argue against this theory?
Vertical Integration
Media conglomerate
Cross-media ownership
Mass Media

Heterogeneous audience: a view that audiences have very different social characteristics and react
different to media texts.
Homogenous audience: an assumption that audiences have common social characteristics and react in
similar ways to media texts.
Social networks: groups of people such as friends and family who influence uses and interpretations of media texts.
Opinion leaders: influential individuals in social networks.
Illustration of model: radio dramatisation of war of the worlds by Orson Welles 1983. Broadcast transmitted in form of news bulletins and many listeners thought it was real & were convinced Martians had landed. It caused major panic.
All share view that audiences are not passive or homogenous and that media messages are influenced by other factors in people's lives and culture e.g. class, gender, ethnicity etc. The interpretation and effect of media affected by context in which it is consumed.
This model relates to pluralist theory ­ with emphasis on consumer choice; media have had to provide heterogeneous audience with its demands.
Research Study (Ivor Crewe) in 1970's The Sun shifted political support from Labour to Conservatives. Crewe found no immediate change in readers voting affiliations but over a longer period, some readers' values and voting behaviour did change. Sun shifted back to Labour in 90's.
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