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Transcript of chap 21
Revolutions In Europe and Latin America
1790- 1848 An Age of Ideologies Conservatives and the Old Order Revolts Against the Old Order The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 The French Revolution of 1830 The French Revolution of 1848 The Spread of Revolution 1848: Another Wave of Rebellion Latin American Wars of Independence Sources of Discontent Haiti's Struggle for Independence Independence for Mexico and Central America Independence in South America Lord Byron The Uprising Louis Kossuth Don Tomas Mateo Cervantes Toussaint L'Overture San Martin Crossing the Andes with Simon Bolivar Spanish born Peninsulares dominated Latin American political and social life. Creoles- the European descended Latin Americans who owned the haciendas, ranches, mines- bitterly resented their second- class status. >Only Spanish born people could hold power
>Merchants and small business owners were in the lower classes.
>Africans were brought to South America to be slaves because they could with-stand the hot and humid climate. >Native Americans were being kicked out of their lands in South America.
>The Spanish ruled Native Americans saw inspiration in themselves when they heard about the Americans fighting back the British and French Independence. >Napoleon Bonaparte attacked Spain and put his brother in charge. The people being ruled by Spain in Latin America saw its weakness and attcked the spanish. Napoleon brought freedom and independence. People of African and European descent were called mulattoes.. People of Native American and European descent were called mestizos. Don Tomas Mateo Cervantes was an aristocrat and government official of Cuba in the late 1700's. Louis XVIII issued a constitution called the Charter of French Liberties. This constitution created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press. People on the far right wanted to go back to the old way of government.
Liberals wanted to extend suffrage and give more power to the middle class citizens.
Louis was succeeded by Charles X, his younger brother. Charles X suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press. Radicals protested violently, so Charles X abdicated and fled to England. The Chamber of Deputies chose a new king, Louis Philippe, a cousin of Charles X. He was called the “citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people. The upper bourgeoisie prospered under Louis Philippe. He also extended suffrage, but only to citizens with wealth. His other policies favored the middle class at the expense of the workers Corruption in the government, a recession, and a bad harvest fed the discontentment in France. In February 1848, the government took steps to silence critics and prevent public meetings. In protest, people took to the streets. People used iron railings, carts, paving stones, and toppled trees to block streets in Paris. The turmoil caused Louis Philippe to abdicate. A group of liberal, radical, and socialist leaders declared the Second Republic. The government was divided on how extreme the changes should be. In the early days of the Republic, socialists set up national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployed.
By June, upper- and middle- class interests had control of the government. They shut down the national workshops because they saw them as a waste of money. Workers protested with the slogan “Bread or Lead!”. Bourgeois liberals and peasants attacked the rioting protesters. At least 1,500 people were killed before the government crushed the rebellion.
By the end of 1848, the National Assembly issued a constitution for the Second Republic. It created a strong president, a one house legislature, and gave the right to vote to all adult men. >Haition's revolted against the French because they were not treated equally.
>France started a debate on whether or not to release the slaves that they had under their conrol. >Toussaint L'overture led a revolt against the French and won. His army that once were French slaves were supported by previous Spain and Britian slaves and Haiti was free.
>L'overture was captured and brought to a French prison and died there. >Napoleon sent a large army to retake Spain, but was defeated by yellow fever and they formed a truce. A truce is a temporary peace. >Father Hidalgo gathered Mexicans with the prayer bells, but actually talked to them about revolting against Spain. They lost the revolt.
>Father Hidalgo led other revolts in Mexico but was later captured and shot. >Spanish viceroys faught eachother, they either sided with Spain or the Mexicans who were fighting for freedom. After some time of fighting the Mexicans got their freedom. Louis Napoleon was the overwhelming winner of France’s presidential election. Louis Napoleon attracted the working class by presenting himself as someone who cared about social problems, like poverty. His famous name linked him to order and past French glory, which helped him with conservatives. Louis Napoleon used his position as a stepping stone to greater power. By 1852, he proclaimed himself emperor, taking the title Napoleon III. 90% of voters supported his move to set up the Second Empire. >The United Provinces of Central Mexico formed but soon broke down into smaller countries. >Native American slave Tupac Amaru led a revolt against Spain.
>After this revolt, Spain revaluated and banished the idea of slaves. >Bolivar led Venezuala to freedom, he was exiled to Haiti twice and on the third time he came up with a plan to retake Venezuala. He led his army straight up and over the Andes and straight into the Spanish capitol Bogata and won. >San Martin free'd Argentina from Spain.
>Bolivar and San Martin worked together for a while, but had different views so San Martin stepped down. >Napoleon advanced into Portugal and the royal family fled to Brazil, they introduced free trade everywhere except Brazil and other freedom based reforms.
>Once Portugal was safe to return to the royal family went back but left their son Dom Pedro in control of Brazil.
>The monarchy in Portugal soon fell and Brazil became independent under Dom Pedro. He provided the people with freedom. In 1830 and 1848, the revolts in Paris inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna had united the Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium) and the kingdom of Holland under the Dutch King to create a strong barrier against the French. Belgium and Holland differed in language, religion , and economic interests .
News of the Paris uprising in 1830 ignited a revolutionary spark in Belgium. Students and workers threw up barricades in Brussels the capital. The Dutch king looked to other countries for help, but Britain and France believed that they would benefit if Belgium and Holland were separate; Austria, Prussia, and Russia were putting down they’re own revolts. Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution in 1831.
Nationalists in Poland staged an uprising in 1830, but they failed to win independence. In the late 1700s, Russia, Austria, and Prussia divided Poland among themselves. Poles hoped that the Congress of Vienna would restore their homeland in 1815. Instead, Russia was given control over most of Poland. In 1830, polish students, army officers, and landowners revolted, but they were crushed by Russian forces. Some survivors fled to Western Europe and The United States of America. In the Austrian empire, a revolt broke out in Vienna, taking the government by surprise. Metternich, who had dominated Austrian politics, tried to silence the students who were revolting. When workers supported the students, Metternich resigned and fled. The Austrian emperor promised reform. In the rest of the empire, Hungarian nationalists and Czechs also made demands for reform. They succeeded, but only temporarily. Austria regained control of Vienna and Prague, and, with help from Russia, crushed the rebels in Budapest. In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly. Within a year, he dissolved the assembly. He later wrote his own constitution keeping power for himself or those of the upper class. Throughout 1848, delegates from German states met in the Frankfurt Assembly. They planned to create a constitution for Germany, but disagreements quickly broke out. Delegates argued over things like whether Germany should be a monarchy or republic and if Austria should be included in Germany. Finally, they offered Frederick William IV from Prussia the crown, but he declined because they were not German Princes. He said the offer came from the gutter. By early 1849, the assembly was dissolved, under threat from the Prussia military. People still rebelled, hundreds were killed, and more were imprisoned. Thousands of Germans left their homeland most went to the United States. after 1815, the clash of people with opposing indeologies plunged Europe into era of turmoil that lasted more than 30 years. Chapter 21 Quiz Question 2: list three reasons people rebeled against thier governments. Question 1: What route did Bolivar take to enter the Spanish Capitol of Bogata. Ideologies: systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil. Question 3: What is a truce? conservatives: Monarchs and their officials, noble land owners, and church leaders. liberals: business owners, bankers, lawyers, polititions, news paper editors, and others who shape public opinoin. Charter of French Liberties: a constitution made by Louis XVIII that created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press. they supported a social hierarchy in which lower classes were expected torespect and obey their social superiors. Ultraroyalists:
The kings supporters on the far right. They wanted to return to the old way of ruling. They did not want the middle class to have power, unlike the left Charles X:
Louis XVIII's younger brother who inherited the throne in 1824. He limited freedoms his brother permitted. When the rebels controlled Paris, he abdicated and fled to England. June days:
A time in June, during which workers protested the shutting down of the national workshops. February Days:
A time in February during which people protested the governments atempts to silence critic and prevent public meetings by blocking the roads. Louis Napoleon:
originally, the president of the Second Republic, then the Emperor of the Second Empire.He was popular because of his name and because he presented himself as a man who cared about people struggling to make ends meet. Louis Philippe:
the "citizen king", because he owed his throne to the people, he was chosen by the lower house of the French legislature. Philippe's policies favored the middle class Springtime of the people:
an expression that highlights some people's hope that the goernments would change for the better, used during a tidal wave of revolutions across Europe. Frankfurt Assembly:
a group of delegates that wanted reform. They disagreed on many things, and the king they chose regected them. The Frankfurt Assembly did not exist by 1849 Conservatives backed an established church, catholic in Austria and Southern Europe, and orthodox in eastern Europe. Universal Manhood Suffrage: The liberals of the early 1800's saw the role of government as limited to protecting basic rights such as freedom of thought, speech, and religion. Question 4: Which country became an independent state in 1831, with a liberal constitution. Works Cited All pictures from google.com.
All information/ text is from the history book. Spurred by the ideas of liberalism, and natoinalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order. during the 1800's, rebellions erupted in the balkan peninsula and elseware along the southern fringe of Europe. The Balkans, in southeastern Europe, were inhabited by people of various religions and ethnic groups. Autonamy: by 1830, russian support helped the Serbs win autonamy, or selfrule, within the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Sultan later agreed to formal independence. The first Balkan people to revolt were the Serbs. From 1804 to 1813, the Serb leader Karageorge led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans. The bitter struggle was unsuccessful, but it fostered a sence of Serbian identity. A revival of Serbian literature and culture added to the sence of nationhood. In 1815, Milos Obrenovic let the Serbs in a second, more successful rebellion. One reason for their success was that Obrenovic turned to Russia for assistance. By 1830, Russian support helped the Serbs when autonomy, or self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire.
Independence for Greece: In 1821, the Greeks, too, revolted, seeking to end centuries of Ottoman rule. At first, the Greeks were badly divided. But years of suffering in long, bloody wars of independence helped shape a national identity. Leaders of the rebellion justified their struggles as "a national war, a holy war, a war the object of which is to reconquer the rights of individual liberty." They sought help from Western Europeans who admired ancient Greek civilization. The Greeks won sympathy in the West. In the late 1820's, Britain, France, and even conservative Russia forced the Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek provinces. By 1830, Greece was independent. Other Challenges: Several other challenges to the Vienna Peace Settlement erupted in the 1820's. Revolts occurred along the southern fringe of Europe. In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian Peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. Metternick urged conservative rulers to act decisively and crush the dangerous uprisings. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress a revolt in Spain. Challenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals and nationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Liberalism and Nationalism ignited a number of revolts against established rule. Liberal Goals: Because liberals spoke mostly through the bourgeoisie, or middle class, their ideas are sometimes called "bourgeois liberalism". Liberals wanted governments to be based on written constitutions and seperation of powers. Liberals spoke out against divine right monarchy, the old aristocracy, and established churches. They defended the natural rights of individuals to liberty, equality, and property. Most liberals favored a republican form of government over a monarchy, or at least wanted the monarch to be limited by a constitution. Nationalist Goals: For centuries, European rulers had gained or lost lands through wars, marriages, and treaties. They exchanged territories and the people living in them. As a result, by 1815, Europe had several empires that included many nationalities. The Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires, for example, each include diverse peoples. In the 1800's, national groups who shared a common heritage set out to win their own states. Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the goal of creating their own homeland. Conservatives believed that talk about natural rights and constitutional government could lead only to chaos, as it had in France in 1789. If change had to come, they argued, it must come slowly. Conservatives felt that they benefited all people by defending peace and stability. Conservative leaders like Metternich sought to suppress revolutionary ideas. Question 5: True or false, the conservatives in the early 1800's wanted to turn back to the way it was in the years before that. Despite the order imposed by the Congress of Vienna, several revolutions erupted in Europe 1815-1829. The revolutionary ideals would ignite new uprisings in 1830 and 1848