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Transcript of Qualitative Research
and analysis Angela Obregon
Dwight Arscott Validity: Addresses whether the data accurately measures what it was intended to measure.
Trustworthiness and understanding are terms used to describe validity in qualitative research. 12 Strategies for Ensuring the Validity of Qualitative Research Prolong participation at the study site.
Use peer debriefing.
Collect additional artifacts.
Conduct member checks.
Establish structural corroboration/coherence.
Establish referential adequacy. Interviews are purposeful interactions in which one person obtains information from another person.
Interviews allow for data not available through observation alone.
Interviews may be formal and planned or informal and unplanned. Extend the Analysis Considered to be on the lower risk scale of data interpretation
This method suggested by Wolcott states that
This is a strategy for pointing the way rather than leading the way Seek the Advice of Critical Friends Focusing on your work can be difficult after several days of working closely to your research, rely on trusted colleagues to offer a fresh insight that you may have missed
Be aware; the more you seek opinions the more you will receive, with the expectations that you accept their advice Data Collection Validity In Qualitative Research Qualitative Research:
Data Analysis and
Interpretation Interviews Outcomes
. Describe qualitative data collection sources and techniques.
.Describe strategies to address the trustworthiness (i.e., validity) and replicability (i.e., reliability) of qualitative research.
.Describe the steps for getting started as a qualitative researcher ready to begin data collection, or fieldwork. Interviews may be unstructured, semi-structured and structured.
Qualitative data collection is referred to as fieldwork.
Fieldwork includes materials gathered, recorded, and compiled during the study.
Fieldwork requires the researcher to immerse himself in the setting over time.
The researcher collects as much data she can as unobtrusively as possible.
Qualitative data is narrative and visual. Sources and Techniques
Personal and official documents
Email messages and responses
Informal conversations The researcher obtains data by watching participants.
Observational data is often less subject to participant bias.
The researcher attempts not to change the setting. Observation Participant observation
The researcher becomes part of and a participant in the situation being observed.
The researcher participates while observing and collecting data. Degrees of Participant Observation Active participant observer
Privileged active observer
Passive observer Benefits Researcher gains insights and develop relationships with participants Drawbacks Researcher may lose objectivity and become emotionally involved with participants Non-participant observation
The researcher is not directly part of the situation being observed.
The researcher observes and records but does not interact with the participants.
Nonparticipant observation is a less intrusive form of observation. Recording Observations Field notes
Field notes include descriptive information about what the observer has directly seen and heard on site.
Field notes also include reflective information that captures an observer’s personal reactions and thoughts related to the observations.
The researcher avoids evaluative terms in field notes but instead describes behaviors. Observational protocols
Observational protocols are often used.
Protocols provide the researcher with a focus during the observation.
Protocols also provide a framework for the field notes. Example of Observational Protocol Event/Activity of observation
Role of observer
Date and time of observation
Length of observation
Place of observation
Who is being observed? How many people are involved, who are they, and what individual roles and mannerisms are evident?
What is going on? What is the nature of the conversation? What are people saying or doing?
What is the physical setting like? How are people seated, and where? How do the participants interact with each other? Example Protocol Questions What is the status or roles of people; who leads, who follows, who is decisive, who is not? What is the tone of the session? What beliefs, attitudes, values seem to emerge?
How did the meeting end? Was the group divided, united, upset, bored, or relieved?
What activities or interactions seemed unusual or significant?
What was the observer doing during the session? What was the observer’s level of participation in the observation? Guidelines and suggestions
Start slowly. Do not assume that you know what you are looking for until you have experience in the setting and have spent time with the participants.
Try to enter the field with no preconceptions. Recognize and dismiss your assumptions and remain open.
Write your field notes as soon as possible. Don’t discuss the observation until you have written field notes.
Include the date, site, and time on notes. Use large margins and write impressions in the margins. Draw diagrams.
List key words related to the observation and outline what you saw and heard. Use the keywords and the outline to write your notes.
Keep the descriptive and reflective parts of your field notes distinct. Unstructured
Unstructured interviews are similar to conversations.
Unstructured interviews are commonly used to gain more personal information.
Include predetermined questions.
Phrasing structured interviews can be challenging.
Include both open-ended and closed questions.
Pilot test the questions. Guidelines for Interviewing * Building a trusting relationship
Listening is the most important part of interviewing.
Don’t interrupt. Wait.
Tolerate silence. The participant may be thinking.
Avoid leading questions. keep participants focused and ask for details.
Follow-up on what participants say and ask
questions when you don’t understand.
Don’t be judgmental about participants’ views or beliefs.
Don’t debate with participants. collecting data from interview taking notes during the interview writing notes after the interview audio or videotaping the interview
transcript = field notes Questionnaires Questionnaires are a written collection of self-report questions to be answered by a selected group of participants.
Interviews are time consuming. Some researchers use questionnaires and then follow-up questionnaires with interviews.
Questionnaires allow for larger amounts of data collection.
The nature of the data collected with questionnaires is different than data from observations. Questionnaire Guidelines
Make questionnaire attractive.
Carefully proofread questionnaires.
Avoid lengthy questionnaires.
Do not ask unnecessary questions.
Use structured items with a variety of responses. Include a section that allows for other comments.
This section may provide information for follow-up interviews.
If respondents’ identities are necessary, develop a mechanism to track respondents. Examining Records
Qualitative researchers use a variety of available documents.
Videotape and audiotape
Artifacts Trustworthiness and Understanding
Credibility: The report addresses the problems that are not easily explained.
Transferability: Include descriptive/context relevant statements so someone reading the study can identify with its setting.
Dependability: Include plenty of details to address the stability of the data collected.
Confirmability: The neutrality and objectivity of the data are apparent.
Descriptive Validity: Factual accuracy. Researchers cannot distort information they see/hear or make up events based on inferences.
Interpretive Validity: Researcher accurately interprets participants’ behaviors and actions.
Theoretical Validity: How well the report relates to broader theory.
Evaluative Validity: Was the report objective/unbiased when they reported the data. Collect detailed descriptive data.
Develop detailed descriptions of the context.
Establish an audit trail.
Practice Reflexivity. Wolcott’s Strategies for Ensuring Validity of Action Research Talk little; listen a lot.
Record observations accurately.
Begin writing early.
Let readers “see” for themselves.
Write accurately. Reliability in Qualitative Research Reliability: Does the data consistently measure what its suppose to measure?
Are the instruments, tests, and techniques used to gather data reliable?
Generalizability: Refers to the applicability of findings to settings and contexts different from the one in which they were obtained (Not applicable to qualitative research) Getting Started Must have:
Data collection techniques
Locate an appropriate setting
Begin data collection/fieldwork Entry into the research setting
Set up your first visit so that you can be introduced to participants.
Observe in the first visit. Start with brief settings.
Ease into the context, be relatively passive.
Increase your degree of involvement as participants become more familiar.
Be friendly and polite.
Do not take what happens personally. Data analysis and interpretation:
Definitions and purpose
Data Analysis- involves summarizing data.
Data Interpretation- involves making sense and finding meaning in data.
It is important for the researcher to know and understand the data.
Challenge yourself- to explore every possible angle and try to find patterns to seek new understanding from the data collected. Steps in Analyzing Qualitative Research Data
Three repetitive steps:
1. Read/ Memo: become familiar with the data and identifying potential themes.
2. Describe what is going on in the setting: examine the data in depth to provide detailed descriptions of the setting, participants and activities.
3. Classify research data: Categorizing and coding pieces of data and grouping them into themes. Identifying Themes
Coding Surveys, Interviews, and Questionnaires
Asking Key Questions
Doing an Organizational Review
Analyzing antecedents, and Consequences
Stating What’s Missing Data Analysis Strategies Identifying themes
Consider the Big Picture
Are there any Patterns?
Take note as the can change throughout research Coding qualitative data
Reduce Data to a manageable Form
Similar to Brainstorming
Revisit Cards to see if labels have changed Asking Key questions
Who is Centrally involved?
Who has Resources?
What is relevant to the Problem?
How does it happen?
When does it happen? Doing an Organizational Review
Take a Look at the Larger Setting
What is its Mission?
What is its Vision?
The Review of the Organization may provide insight to the data you collect Concept Maping
Gives Participants an opportunity to display their analyses of the problem
Helps researches to determine consistencies and inconsistencies that may exist between disparate groups Analyzing antecedents and consequences
Causes and Effects
Concept maps provides visual representation of the casual relations that you may have identified Displaying findings
Putting Data in a Visual form can sometimes help you see new aspects of it Stating what's missing
Bring attention to the questions you have not been able to answer
Use this to suggest where further research on a topic can be focused Using Computer Software
Will not do the analysis for you
Researchers still have the code that data for the computer to be used
Great for large amounts of data Data Interpretation Strategies The goal of data interpretation is to find meaning in the data; it requires more conceptual and integrative thinking than data analysis because interpretation involves identifying and abstracting important understandings from the detail and complexity of the data. It is also based heavily on the connections, common aspects, and links among the data, especially the identified categories and patterns. As in most qualitative studies, success depends on the perspective and interpretive abilities of the researcher. These four implicit questions should be answered why interpreting your data:
What is important in the data?
Why is it important?
What can be learned from it?
The strategies for data interpretation that follow were presented and adapted by Wolcott and by Stringer.
Extend the analysis
Connect findings with personal experience
Seek advice of critical friends
Contextualize findings in the literature
Turn to theory
Know when to say “when”! Connect Findings with Personal Experience Qualitative research is very personal, it only makes sense to personalize your interpretations of your findings from your study.
Share your interpretations based on your intimate knowledge and understandings of the research setting. Contextualize Findings in the Literature Uncovering external sources as part of the review of related literature is a powerful way for qualitative researchers to provide support for the findings of the study.
Using the review of related literature to provide support for the findings of the study. Turn to theory Know when to say "When"
If you’re not comfortable with offering an interpretation, Don’t Do It!.
Making a suggestions is acceptable to determine what may be done next
Don’t allow your study to be derailed because of a weak interpretation Final advice on interpretation
All researchers and qualitative researchers in particular must face the prospect of not being able to report all the data they have collected. The task of interpreting data is to identify the important themes or meanings in the data, not necessarily every theme.
Sharing your interpretations wisely and avoiding the mind set of following a fad, movement on a pendulum swing or bandwagon are often the signs of prematurely embracing a current trend and taking on the soapbox effect to present it to those who are not aware of that particular study. This approach can often lead to being alienated by your colleagues.
Always attempt to connect your interpretations to your data and analysis and share them in an appropriate manner and setting with others. Throughout this chapter emphasis was on qualitative researchers conducting credible data analysis and data interpretation that was trustworthy and capable of withstanding the scrutiny of the research community. Six key point questions intended to help researchers check the quality of their data. Are the data based on one’s own observation or on hearsay?
Are observations corroborated by others?
In what circumstances was an observation made or reported?
How reliable are those providing the data?
What motivations may have influenced a participant’s report?
What biases may have influenced how an observation was made or reported? Advice on Ensuring Credibility
Qualitative researchers who attend to these guidelines for conducting credible data analysis and data interpretation are rewarded with trustworthy research reports that will withstand the scrutiny of the research community Ensuring Credibility In Your Study Qualitative Data Analysis Thank You! Any questions? Research article critique This study describes the experiences of a group of adults with intellectual disabilities in a socially inclusive context.
Fourteen young adults
Ages 21 to 35
A semi structured interview was used with open ended questions
Triangulation was used to increased the validity of the study Seven Themes
Living Accommodations & Transportation
Work and Volunteer
Involvement in Activities
Relationships and Interactions
Sense of Belonging
Influential Factors Results
Young adults experienced more social inclusion when:
Learned problem skills
Participated in social activities, sports, church and other community gatherings
Community members referred to them by names and talked to them Results Young adults experienced less social inclusion due to:
Limitations in transportation
Lack of communication and scheduling issues
Limited amount of working hours
Transportation was a number one factor that limited their social inclusion Focus groups e-mail interviews