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Logical Fallacies

The theory of relativity explains that the time and position of an event is relative to the frame of reference of an observer. This prezi simplifies the theory of relativity using beautiful visuals.

Turah Reid

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Fallacies Appeal to Emotion Fallacy Strawman Fallacy Slippery Slope Fallacy Manipulate an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument.Appeals to emotion include appeals to fear, envy, hatred, pity, pride, and more. c i t a p m h An
Arturah Reid
Presents Ad Hominem Fallacy This clip is considered a loaded question fallacy because during the clip, the mother asked the father if he was concerned that his daughter had ran away. The father considered this a loaded question because if he had answered saying no he would have appeared guilty for not being a concerned father, but if he had answered yes, then he would've been guilty for lying. Burden
Fallacy so time is an independent dimension, and with the other 3 spatial dimensions, they make up spacetime, the 4-dimensional world we live in. False Cause Fallacy Loaded Question Fallacy this was the state of singularity, where the number of dimensions are infinite. There was no space and no time. the very heavy radio stars, whose gravitational field is so strong that even light can't escape from them. that's why they are 'invisible' The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Middle Ground Fallacy Holly said that vaccinations caused autism in children, but her scientifically well-read friend Caleb said that this claim had been debunked and proven false. Their friend Alice offered a compromise that vaccinations must cause some autism, just not all autism. Appeal to Nature Fallacy This video displays appeal to nature fallacy because the woman in this video, believes that all natural foods are, better than non-organic foods. Genetic Fallacy Bandwagon Fallacy Anecdotal Fallacy. In this clip, Rita's mother uses Rita's father's personal experience of not being able to achieve his dreams of a becoming a singer the reason why Rita can not sing. Instead of her mother giving her a valid reason of why, she uses personal experience as her reason. When you find something difficult to understand, or are unaware of how it works, you made out like it's probably not true. Mutually Exclusive Fallacy Composition/Division Fallacy "This fragment of metal cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a part cannot be fractured with a hammer." Ambiguity Fallacy When the judge asked the defendant why he hadn't paid his parking fines, he said that he shouldn't have to pay them because the sign said 'Fine for parking here' and so he naturally presumed that it would be fine to park there. No True Scotsman Fallacy Appeal to Authority Fallacy Not able to defend his position that evolution 'isn't true' Bob says that he knows a scientist who also questions evolution (and presumably isn't a primate). so these are the miraculous rules of our universe we have all experienced the Doppler-effect: it's the phenomenon when an ambulance passes by you with its sirens turned on. The sound you hear when it approaches is different from the one when it departs. S y e t Tu Quoque Fallacy Personal Incredulity Fallacy During the past two months, every time the cheerleaders have worn blue ribbons, the basketball team has won. So if we want to keep winning, they had better continue to wear the blue ribbons. In this picture Burger King and Mickey D's are the Two alternative states as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist. Fin The crowd that Malcolm X is speaking to, is already upset about their lack of civil rights. Malcolm X uses this as an advantage by stirring up the crowd's anger more by suggesting physical protest or violence. Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong."
Dave: "Of course you would say that, you're a priest."
Bill: "What about the arguments I gave to support my position?"
Dave: "Those don't count. Like I said, you're a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong. Further, you are just a lackey to the Pope, so I can't believe what you say." This conversation is considered an Ad Hominem Fallacy because Dave believes that Bill is against abortion due to his religious beliefs. Though this may be true, Dave is not acknowledging Bill's actual argument to support his position, but instead attacks Bill's argument by bringing up Bill's religious beliefs. This political cartoon is considered a strawman fallacy because Romney edits Obama's remarks, and uses them against Obama for Romney's own benefit. When this edited remark is seen, Obama loses voters, while Romney gains votes. "If we allow doctor assisted suicide, then eventually the government will control how we die." This quote is considered a slippery slope fallacy because there was an exaggerated accusation that resulted in effort to avoid the essential and initial argument at hand. This image is considered a tu quoque because in Christian religion, Jesus is known as the son of God, therefore is almighty, and can perform wonders and miracles. This political cartoon displays Obama questioning the power of Jesus with sarcasm, and noticing Obama's sarcasm, Jesus answers back in sarcasm. This was used to show the personal incredulity fallacy because the white society in this trailer, from the movie "Skin", refused to except the young black child into their niche. The young child that appeared to be black, was born of a white family, but because the people in society could not understand that, they accused the truth as being false, and their opinion became the truth. This image is considered a burden of proof fallacy because the cartoon in yellow claims that he can turn into a unicorn, when the cartoon in the green asks him to prove it, yellow makes the argument that green could not prove that he couldn't turn into a unicorn. Thus creating the burden of proof. This statement says that every time the cheerleaders wore the blues ribbons, it caused the basketball team to win. In reality, these two events have nothing to do with each other, the basketball team gained their victories through hard work and practice, not due to the cheerleaders wearing blue ribbons. This situation gives an example of a middle ground fallacy. Two friends are having a dispute, Holly and Caleb, another friend, Alice, tries to resolve the argument. Alice takes both Holly and Caleb's sides of the argument and combines both to make an answer which will be accepted by Holly and Caleb as the truth. This Clip was chosen to represent Genetic fallacy because the mother, in the scene, was prejudice against the young man her daughter had danced with that night, because he was from the slums, as some would put it. She even refers to him as the " Cuban pool boy" in this scene. This video Clip was used to show the definition of bandwagon.This clip has been played back many times on one of America's top morning radio shows, "The Breakfast Club." On this show the woman who screams "Sanchez" is considered a bandwagon fan because she is dressed from head to toe in NY Giant fan gear after the NY Giants win the Super Bowl, but is screaming the name of a NY Jets football player. This is considered a composition/ division fallacy because it is assumed that because the metal could not be fractured with a hammer that the machine made of that metal could not be fractured with a hammer. Thus saying that because one thing is true that it has to be applied to something else. This is considered an ambiguity fallacy because the man misinterpreted the use of the word "fine." Instead of him thinking of it as a financial phrase, he thought of it as a phrase saying it was okay to park there. Angus declares that Scotsmen do not put sugar on their porridge, to which Lachlan points out that he is a Scotsman and puts sugar on his porridge. Furious, like a true Scot, Angus yells that no true Scotsman sugars his porridge. This is considered a no true scotsman fallacy because Angus says that scotsmen do not sugar their porridge, when another scotsman says that he does sugar his porridge,Angus becomes embarrassed due to the flaws in his argument.So he continues to declare that his philosophy is true. This is considered an appeal to authority fallacy because it is not a valid argument based on a fact but an argument based on opinion, and uses someone of similar education, or of higher authority to support your opinion.
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