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03.05 DNA Replication

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Chloe Elizabeth

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of 03.05 DNA Replication

Transcription is the process by which DNA is copied to mRNA, which holds the information needed for protein synthesis. Transcription takes place in two broad steps. First, pre-messenger RNA is formed, with the involvement of RNA polymerase enzymes.
DNA
03.05 DNA Replication
Messenger RNA molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts.
Credits http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/ribosomes-transcription-and-translation-14120660
mRNA
RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA. In cells, RNAP is necessary for constructing RNA chains using DNA genes as templates, a process called transcription. Credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_polymerase
RNA Polymerase
The two complementary, nitrogen-rich molecules held together by weak chemical bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between their base pairs. Also known as base pairing.
Credit- https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=basepair
Base Pairing
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Credit- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(genetics)
Transcription
During translation, which is the second major step in gene expression, the mRNA is "read" according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins. Each group of three bases in mRNA constitutes a codon, and each codon specifies a particular amino acid. The mRNA sequence is thus used as a template to assemble—in order—the chain of amino acids that form a protein.
Credit- http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/translation-dna-to-mrna-to-protein-393
Translation
A class of RNA molecules, coded in the nucleolar organizer, that have an integral role in ribosome structure and function. RNA components of the subunits of the ribosomes.
Credit- http://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-R/ribosomal_RNA.html
rRNA
Credits: http://www.atdbio.com/content/14/Transcription-Translation-and-Replication
tRNA
Transfer RNA. Small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into a polypeptide. During translation the amino acid is inserted into the growing polypeptide chain when the anticodon of the tRNA pairs with a codon on the mRNA being translated.
Credit- http://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-T/tRNA.html
Ribosomes
A complex organelle that catalyzes translation of messenger RNA into an amino acid sequence. Ribosomes are made up of two non-identical subunits each consisting of a different rRNA and a different set of proteins. Credit- http://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-R/ribosome.html
Amino Acids

The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon atom.
Credits- http://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-A/amino_acid.html
Protein
A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order; the order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene that codes for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions. Examples are hormones, enzymes, and antibodies. Credit- http://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-P/protein.html
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