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International Response to Apartheid
Transcript of International Response to Apartheid
to Apartheid What is Divestment? What is Constructive Engagement? Meanwhile in South Africa... The Effects: College Student Protest Convincing the Stakeholders So what was the problem? Providing incentives to gradually wean South Africa from Apartheid instead of ultimately forcing them into it with international pressure. This meant limiting economic sanctions, retaining economic ties as a way to preserve American influence, and engaging in peaceful negotiations with South Africa’s White minority leadership. How it came about: Those who opposed divestment: Disinvestment, or “divestment,” was a policy of withdrawing all foreign investments from businesses that operated in the South Africa to take financial power away from their government. In effect, it would isolate and therefore starve the White-monopolized South African economy to the point of collapse. The UN sought to impose sactions
Formed the Special Committee against Apartheid in 1962
Boycotted by major stakeholders of the Western nations Black political leaders enraged by a proposed constitution
The townships erupted in protest and the country lost any sense of political stability.
A State of Emergency was declared in 1985
Military force was used to subdue societal unrest. Stanford University in 1977 - Stanford Committee for a Responsible Investment Policy (SCRIP) carried out an awareness campaign, staged rallies and conducted a sit-in of 294 students who were arrested
Students at UC Berkeley erected a symbolic shantytown in front of the office of their chancellor, which also resulted in the arrests of 61 students (Associated Press).
Many colleges withdrew investments from companies with South African interests. President Ronald Reagan & the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act The Act banned new U.S. investment in South Africa, sales to the police and military, and new bank loans, except for the purpose of trade. Specific measures against trade included the prohibition of the import of agricultural goods, textiles, shellfish, steel, iron, uranium and the products of state-owned corporations.
Reagan attempted to veto the bill
Overridden by Congress
Then came the Budget Reconciliation Act in 1987, which served as an amendment to the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act. It made it so that corporations could not receive tax reimbursements for taxes paid in South Africa, resulting in them being taxed twice. Common Criticism of Divestment Something Had to be Done "We believe that the world, too, can destroy apartheid, firstly by striking at the economy of South Africa."
-Oliver Tambo noted how the presence of American companies led to South Africans having more access to jobs and vocational training. It took economic heavyweights like the Western nations to significantly impact the economy.
Trying to come up with the money to refund so many investments all at once caused severe capital flight in the country.
The capital flight caused the international exchange rate for South African currency, the rand, to plummet.
This made imported goods especially expensive
Drove the country to an unhealthy annual inflation rate of 12-15%. Since the South African economy relied so heavily on foreign investment it was particularly susceptible to divestment.
The South African government had no choice but to enter into negotiations with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress. The world began to take an interest in the atrocities faced by the Black population under Apartheid
International leaders wanted to empower the disenfranchised Black majority
Determined that economic force would be the most effective Presentation by: Cameron Boyd UK-based Anti-Apartheid Movement, pushed for an International Conference for Economic Sanctions on South Africa
Britain's 1964 General Election
U.S. lobbies individual businesses
Sullivan Principles Divestment. underestimated of the urgency to end racial injustice
"When Jim Crow was the legal system here, US corporations were as discriminatory as ever and paid poverty wages to those blacks which they did hire. Jim Crow, as a legally sanctioned system of segregation, was later abolished in the United States, not as a result of US corporations setting a good example, but as a result of popular movements. Defacto segregation and discrimination have persisted in US corporations in the United States even after they had been outlawed."
-John E. Parsons While disinvestment policies were hard on the South African economy, it was a necessary catalyst which led to the eventual end of apartheid. it would be the most detrimental to the Black working class South Africans it was trying to liberate