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The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Transcript of The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Historians agree that the major cause of the war was the question of succession of the French throne.
Timeline of Significant Events
The battle which was fought at the village of Crecy in northern France went into history for the disastrous defeat of the French despite the fact that they had a considerable
Joan of Arc (c. 1412–1431)
Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans," was born in 1412 in Domrémy, Bar, France. A national heroine of France and Roman Catholic Saint, Joan of Arc led the French army to victory over the British at Orléans, at age 18. Captured a year later, Joan was burned by the English and their French collaborators as a heretic. She was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint 500 years later, on May 16, 1920.
Joan of Arc claimed to have visions of angels and saints urging her to go to France and drive out the English and the Burgundians, explaining that God supported Charles' claim to the throne and had taken pity on the French population for the suffering they were enduring throughout the war. She was sent to the siege of Orleans on a relief mission by the uncrowned King Charles VII and gained prominance when the siege was lifted in only nine days. Several other swift victories on her part led to the coronation of King Charles VII. She was captured shortly after and handed over to the English and put on trial for a variety of charges- the majority of which were accusations about witchcraft. After months of torture and interrogation, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake on 30 May, 1431, aged approximately 19 years old.
The Hundred Years War was a series of disputes between France and England that took place over 116 years, the longest war in European history. Fighting was not constant; throughout the war there were periods of uneasy peace and ceasefire from both sides. The Kingdom of England was pitted against the Valois Capetains for control of the French throne. These series of conflicts resulted in a French victory, but there was an extremely high casualty and loss rate on both sides.
King Charles IV of France died in 1328, without a male heir. His sister, Isabella of France had married Edward II of England and their son, Edward III, became King of England. Edward III was also Charles IV's closest male relative eligible for the throne. Edward III insisted that he was the heir to the throne.
SALIC LAW OF SUCCESSION
France, opposed to a foreign ruler (especially an Englishmen, declared that Edward's legitimacy to the throne was trumped by the Salic Law of Succession. The Salic Law stated that women could not rule or pass rule on through her descendants. Philip VI, the cousin of Charles IV, claimed the throne.
Isabella of France
Son of Edward III of England, Edward the Black Prince heavily defeated the superior French army near Poitiers, the today’s capital of the French region of Poitou-Charentes. Again, the English longbowmen played the decisive role in the outcome of the battle. The French king John II was captured during the battle and taken to England. He was released in 1360 after he promised to pay an enormous ransom.
The battle marked the last of the three brilliant English victories in the Hundred Years’ War against France.
The English, commanded by King Henry V decisively defeated the numerically superior French army and conquered much of France. The English, however, failed to achieve a decisive victory in the war which entered into a new phase after the Battle of Agincourt and gradually turned in the French favor.
Joan of Arc, a 17-year old French peasant girl who claimed divine guidance lifted the Siege of Orleans which marked the turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. One of the greatest successes of the French army during the entire war enabled Charles VII to travel to Rheims to be crowned as King of France but it also significantly increased the morale among the French soldiers. In 1430, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians who handed her over to the English. She was burned at the stake for heresy in the same year.
numerical superiority. The Genoese mercenary crossbowmen and later the elite force of French knights proved to be an easy target for the English longbowmen. Victory at Crecy enabled Edward III of England to lay siege to Calais and force the city defenders to surrender one year later.
Battle of Crecy (August 26, 1346)
Battle of Poitiers (September 19, 1356)
Battle of Agincourt (October 25, 1415)
Lifting of the Siege of Orleans (May 8, 1429)
Battle of Castillon (July 17, 1453)
The battle which ended with the French victory marked the end of the Hundred Years’ War between France and England although a peace treaty was never signed. The English who achieved several major victories during the course of the war lost all their possession in France except for Calais which was recaptured by the French only in 1558. The battle, however, also went into history as the first battle in Europe in which cannons played a decisive role.
France was victorious in the war, but the land was left decimated due to the destruction of the war. From the ruins of the war, however, a new France emerged- a unified nation. They responded to the events and effects of the war by rebuilding a stronger infrastructure in order to survive. The newfound nationalism, power, and military propelled France to dominance in European wars and politics for the next four centuries. The King of France took on more responsibility, and France was united more solidly under the royal authority.
The success of the longbow and handgun that were used by England during the war marked the end of the previously invincible cavalry. This was the beginning of modern warfare in the form of professional armies and massed ranks of guns. The growth of English culture was encouraged by the emergence of nationalism in the 14th and 15th century. England withdrew from continental politics and formed their contemporary identity; it ceased to be a continental power and sought expansion as a naval power.
The two countries had a untied language and culture, so the war forced the two countries to make their own identities.
Anglo-French Family Tree
BATTLE OF CRECY
BATTLE OF POITIERS
TREATY OF BRETIGNY
CASTILIAN CIVIL WAR
FRENCH CIVIL WAR
WAR BEGINS AGAIN
BATTLE OF AGINCOURT
TREATY OF TROYES
HENRY V DIES
JOAN OF ARC LIFTS THE SIEGE OF ORLEANS
BATTLE OF PATAY
CHARLES VII CROWNED KING OF FRANCE
JOAN OF ARC BURNED AT ROUEN
BATTLE OF CASTILLON
Previous tensions between France and England
Land disputes, especially the region of Aquitane
The defeat at Castillon sparks the mental breakdown of Henry VI, and sends England into internal turmoil- the War of the Roses began, and the Tudor Dynasty was established
English is firmly kicked out of France, except for the small territory of Calais
Charles VII, once he establishes himself as the sole ruler of France, makes political reforms that give the King more power- creates problems with the monarchy having too much power
Regular taxation in France is established, in order to pay for the professional standing army that Charles creates
Greater sense of nationalism in both countries- England, especially, becomes less focused on creating an empire
New weaponry and battle tactics are introduced: long-range warfare and artillery takes away the importance of the mounted knight, and to some extent the power of the nobility
European relations- diplomacy practices established with allies on both sides
England emerges as a "superpower" in Europe, a reputation it would continue to hold for many years after the war