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Transcript of Sigmund Freud
Freud's Famous Theories and Ideas
Sigmund Freud is known as one of the most influential thinkers psychology from the early twentieth century and the beginning of psychoanalysis. He invested his entire life in attempts to understand how the complex mind worked and came up with theories and ideas that gave the world more insight into human behavior and psyche.
If Sigmund Freud's dream, which he based his theory of dream analysis on, was slightly different because of a change in the process of secondary elaboration, how would it have changed his theory? would his results have had a bigger impact?
the father of psychoanalysis
Freud's influence on modern psychology
modern psychology has used Freud's theories because they were very different from ll the other theories of that time period. Freud unlike any other psychologist, used a very scientific point of view giving his conclusions a higher sense of validity as there was scientifically sound evidence, not just opinionated or biased conclusions. this resulted in his theories surviving and influencing further breakthroughs in the world of psychology.
Sigmund Freud was born in Frieberg, Moravia in 1856.
Then in 1860, at the age of four, him and his family moved to Vienna.
He began his medical education at the university of Vienna in 1873 and graduated with a medical degree in 1881
The next year in 1882, he married and became a doctor in Vienna general hospital. it was around this time when he began private practices in the treatment of psychological disorders.
Many of his theories were based on the clinical material he acquired from both his private practices and his medical background. the result of this was a deeper understanding surrounding the mind and the creation of psychoanalysis as a science.
Freud also wrote multiple books dedicated to the mind's complexities. his works include, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.
Sigmund Freud is known as the father of psychoanalysis. In his life he was a Psychologist, a medical doctor and a physiologist. He also happened to be one of the twentieth century's greatest minds.
Repression is a mechanism used to keep disturbing thoughts from becoming present in the minds consciousness. Repression is used by the ego.
Denial is a mechanism used to block out any external conflicts that might be too much for the mind to handle.
Projection is a mechanism by which a person attributes their negative or unacceptable qualities onto another person.
A mechanism exerting energy on a substitute object to satisfy an impulse.
Example: Tim came home from school grumpy and yelled at his mom when she asked him about his day.
A mechanism used when put in a difficult situation for the mind where the individual will preform actions usually developed during childhood that is associated with comfort or relief.
A mechanism exerting energy on a substitute object to satisfy an impulse in a ay that is socially acceptable.
Example: Anna went to soccer practice after feeling sad all day because of a fight she had with her mom and came home feeling much better and ready to make amends.
The case of Anna O
One of Freud's greatest theories was his theory on defense mechanisms of the human mind. its ground breaking ideas opened new understandings about human behavior. The following are 6 examples of the many defense mechanisms Freud came up with.
'The case of Anna O' was one of Freud's first big ideas that caught traction. this was the event that launched his career as a neuropathlogist and went on to affect the direction of psychology for the future.
First off, Anna's real name was Bertha Pappenhiem. She was a Patient who suffered from severe hysteria without any physical causes. her previous doctor treated her by enabling her to recall repressed memories that could have traumatized her into hysteria. Freud eventually caught wind of this treatment and this began one of Freud's life long works,
Studies in Hysteria.
The theory that Freud cape up with from the event involving Anna O, was that physical symptoms of hysteria and other neurosis are the result of the build up of repressed traumatic memories. This theory also lead Freud to his most famous theory that the mind is made up of 3 levels.
The psyche and the unconscious mind
In the early twentieth century, Freud came up with the theory where he famously compared the mind to an iceberg, where the exposed tip of the iceberg is the minds consciousness and the rest of the iceberg that is not visible, or submerged is the unconscious mind. He Emphasized the importance of the unconscious and conscious mind and breaks down the purpose of both (Cherry, http://psychology.about.com.).
As Freud depicted the three levels of consciousness, he also broke the mind down into 3 levels in the attempt explain human behavior
The id is the part of the mind that is active only in the unconscious. It is the source of all the primal impulses and instincts an individual is born with. The Id is the part of the mind that gives the individual the message that they feel hunger, or that they are tired and need to sleep.
The ego is in charge of making sure that the needs of the Id are satisfied. The Ego is slightly present in the conscious mind however is mostly in the unconscious mind. It is also the part of the minds in charge of reality and how the individual is present in it. The ego develops from the id at a young age, usually during the time the individual is a baby. It is also in charge of using defense mechanisms.
The superego is the part of the brain that is fully conscious and deals with morality. This part of the mind develops later on during childhood. It is responsible for guilt if the individual does something morally wrong directly from id. The id and superego can often conflict with each other in which case the ego must calm everything down with reason.
Freud's idea was that dreams were the 'royal road to the unconscious'. He believed that dreams were when the ego lowered the defense mechanisms creating a window to the unconscious mind. dreams are the only time the conscious mind can accept information from the unconscious mind. these are what Freud saw as dreams.
He came up with this idea from on of his own dreams where he was worried about a patient a felt guilty. He dreamed that he met and examined his patient a party, and while he was examining her a drug that was prescribed to her by a different doctor flashed in front of his eyes and he came to the conclusion that the dream was telling him that the culprit of his patients problem was a contaminated syringe from the doctor before him. because of this, he didn't feel guilty anymore.
From this idea, Freud was able to identify two elements making up a dream. These are manifest content (memories of the dreamer) and latent content (symbols pertaining to the dreams meaning). He also came up with dream work. Dream work is the process of turning a wish into manifest content. Dream work can be decomposed into 3 sub processes: condensation, the marriage or two images. Displacement: turning the focal subject into something else, and secondary elaboration: gap filling to fulfill wishes.
Freud was the one to come up with universal symbols in dreams. Symbols that usually will have the same meaning for everyone who experiences them. This was the beginning of dream dictionaries which are still used and valued today.
Sigmund Freud and Psychology
Sigmund Freud: The Unconscious Mind
Cherry, K. (n.d).
. Retrieved September 6th, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com.
McLeod, S. (2013).
. Retrieved September 6th, 2014, from http://www.simplypsychology.org.
Thorton, S. (n.d.).
. Retrieved September 6th, 2014, from http://www.iep.utm.edu.