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Transcript of Comprehension
Comprehension is the application of metacognitive strategies to thoroughly analyze and understand a text.
Levels of Thinking:
Readers can pick out the main ideas, sequence details, notice similarities and differences, and identify explicitly stated reasons
Readers use clues in the text, implied information, and their background knowledge to draw inferences
Readers analyze symbolic meanings, distinguish fact from opinion, and draw conclusions
Readers judge the value of a text using generally accepted criteria and personal standards
Why Is Comprehension Important?
Comprehension is the goal of reading.
The sole purpose of reading and writing; to express intent and meaning to others.
Without comprehension, words are just words on a page and lack meaning.
Without comprehension, students cannot learn from the text and lose the motivation to read. Functional illiteracy is the most severe case.
“The degree to which students can read and understand text in all formats (e.g., picture, video, print) and all contexts is a key indicator of success in school and in life." (Moreillon, 2014)
& English Language Learners
Bilingual dictionaries: key vocabulary, expressions, grammatical structures
Link personal experiences with text
Story retelling and summarizing
What is the root of the problem?
Differentiation is crucial
“Explicit instruction and scaffolding provided Cheung (EL student) with a systematic approach to language development and encouraged him to be an active learner" (2011, Bauer and Azari).
"Reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that requires simultaneous use of rapid word recognition and semantic and syntactic cues in order to construct meaning using personal knowledge and the content of the text." (Gibbons, 2002)
Readers ask questions about a text to clarify confusions and establish meaning
Questioning: Classroom Implementation
Right There Questions:
Literal questions whose answers can be found in the text. Often the words used in the question are the same words found in the text.
Think and Search Questions:
Answers are gathered from several parts of the text and put together to make meaning.
Author and You:
These questions are based on information provided in the text but the student is required to relate it to their own experience. Although the answer does not lie directly in the text, the student must have read it in order to answer the question.
On My Own:
These questions do not require the student to have read the passage but he/she must use their background or prior knowledge to answer the question
Questions are natural – teachers must create an environment where students can ask questions that do not necessarily have “right” or “wrong” answers (Hoyt, 2005)
When readers ask questions about a text, they engage in deeper levels of thought, which aids in comprehension
Introduce the strategy by talking about how important it is for good readers to ask questions as they read
Read a book aloud and stop after every few pages to model asking questions, and then allow students to question (Cunningham & Shagoury, 2005)
“Questioning is at the heart of inquiry.” (Moreillon, 2014)
"The ability to make inferences is crucial for comprehension because inferencing facilitates a reader’s ability to create personal and implied meanings from text” (Hoyt, 2005)
You enter the world created by the author, and you create images and inferences based on what the author tells you, your own knowledge, and beliefs about that world. (Miller)
Schema + Book Clues = Inference
It says - I Say - And So...
Riddle Cards: (I have three kids, my office is in room 122, and I love my 11:50 Emergent Literacy class. Who am I?)