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Curriculum and Technology

By "Team America"

John Sizemore Jr., M. Ed.

on 25 December 2013

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Transcript of Curriculum and Technology

Rachel Bonaparte

Cheryl Daniels
Maryanne Diperri

John Sizemore


Widener University

and Technology

1. The Impact of Technology on Curriculum Theory and Development
Look Back at the Passage.
Did you get the Message?
2. Technology and Relation to
Socio-political Influences
on the Curriculum
Educational technology still remains controversial three decades later since the first computer was introduced into America’s schools and classrooms.

Technology’s application was aimed at:
Increasing student achievement and scores on high stake tests
Enhancing relevancy of content knowledge and actual learning
Increasing student engagement in classroom, and 21st century learning experiences and skills among modern technologically perceptive students

The success, benefits, and difficulties of technology ought to be measured in its ability to accomplish that which it was
deemed to do.
3. Theoretical Applications
of Technology against
Actual Practice in Our Schools
Technology, as defined by Merriam-Webster as a “practical application of knowledge . . . in a particular area”, has a vital role in the classroom. Since most people and businesses cannot work without it, the truth that technology isn't used in more schools is astonishing. Having more technology available to schools can improve the level of instruction and tackle numerous school problems. As the DOE and the technology industry pour millions into providing schools with the latest technology available, the use of that
4. Pros and Cons of
Technology in Curriculum
A quick look at how advancements in technology have impacted teaching and learning over time
Technology Costs!
The major issues relate to the actual application of technology in classrooms. One significant concern relating to the introduction and use of technology in schools is the cost associated with it. School systems are compelled to spend tremendously on:

teacher training
technological materials or tool purchases

Since the cost generally run into billions of dollars, the issue of value emerges and remains a challenge in educational technological investment (Victor, 2010).
A review of the past decade suggests four miscalculations on the part of educators:
Over confident that they could easily accomplish the depth of school change required to realize the potential technology holds for learning— not an easy task
Lack of effort in documenting the effect on student learning, teacher practices, and system efficiencies
Overestimating the time it would take to reach a sufficient point for technology access
Underestimating the rate of change in technology, and the impact of such rapid, continuous change on staff time, budgeting, professional development, software upgrades, and curricular and lesson redesign.
Serves as a real-time window into each child’s understanding of concepts, these devices can provide a foundation for decision-making based on data at a scale never before possible.
Quick Response Devices
The theoretical research base indicates that the increased visualization, increased interactivity with students and the increased reflective dialog among students and teachers around this focal point contributes to learning.
Cox, M. (2011). "A review of the research literature relating to ICT and attainment." BECTA ICT Research. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 19, (3), 297–313.

Cuban, L. (2011). "Oversold & underused: computers in the classroom." Journal of Technology, 23(9), 45.

Goldberg, A. (2010). "The effect of computers on student writing: a met analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002." Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2, 1.

Huppert, S. (2012). "Computer simulations in the high school: students’ cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology." International Journal of Science Education, 24,( 8), 803–821.

Victor, R.E. (2010). "Inexorable and inevitable: the continuing story of technology and assessment." Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, l 1, 1.
Section 3
To use technology to encourage students to engage in test-taking practices and to increase motivation during count down to PSSA.
“I believe the children are our are future 
Teach them well and let them lead the way 
Show them all the beauty they possess inside 
Give them a sense of pride to make it easier
Let the children's laughter remind us how we used to be . . .”

Sung by Whitney Houston, written by Michael Masser and Linda Creed
In February the 4th -6th grade teachers noticed that during the count down for PSSA days, students were…
Showing reduced interest and engagement
Having difficulty with recalling test-taking strategies
Lacking enthusiasm (4th-6th grade students) to attending yearly PSSA Kick Off Rally presented by teachers.
Pre-Planning Process: Concerns
School Based Instructional Leader presents ways to use the Smart Board for Reading/Math test prep for 3-6 grade teachers and…
Have an underground PSSA “Step Battle” between 4th-6th grade classes on the third floor. PRINCIPAL must not KNOW!
Solution Plan
“What impact does preparing for standardized testing have on students’ motivation?” (Arnone, Small, Chauncey, & McKenna, 2011, p. 187)
Value #1
Build self-esteem during test prep
Factors that affect self-esteem:
Students recently took Predictive Assessment and some scored Proficient and others scored basic or below basic.
Results posted on classroom Data Wall

I am a Proficient!
I am a Basic or Below Basic…
Guiding Question:
Guiding Question:
How can Smartboard technology be used to motivate students to get ready for the PSSA and improve student engagement?
Value #2
Develop pride and enjoyment of learning
For the Step Battle, each class created a rap and step dance to reinforce test-taking strategies.
Students will showcase their talents
Teachers will use the Smartboard and the software to display PSSA released items.
Implementation of the Curriculum Creation Process
Teachers use the Smartboard to display PDE Released Items to model and practice testing techniques.
The PDE website has released items that can be downloaded. 

Students will solve problems using Smartboard technology
Grade 5 prepared for the Step Battle with other classes.
Value #3 Students should engage in high-tech culture (Monke, 2004).
How can everyone view the lyrics while we make up the rap? Type using a laptop and display words on Smartboard screen.
What is stepping? We can view videos.
5th Grade watched demonstration
of step dancing
Cheryl Watson Company
3rd Floor builds excitement for Step Battle…
Each class agrees to the following:
Rap and step dance must be connected to PSSA.
Tape off staging area in the hallway between classrooms.
Students practice during lunch and recess.
Good sportsmanship
Day of the Step Battle
3rd floor area sectioned off for performances.
Tech teacher “sneaks” to get speakers from auditorium and MC or emcee the event.
Each class is “hype” with excitement.
Word gets out and “visitors” show up with camera phones.
Principal finds out!
Let the Step Battle begin…
Grade 5 Performance
Boys rap and “hit” a beat that complements lyrics
(Part of lyrics)
P-S-S-A, we have something we wanna say
Use the elimination strategy and you’ll do fine you see
P-S-S-A, We have something we wanna say…

Girls step dance to “All the teachers love us.”
Dedication to ALL classes on the 3rd floor: Girls sing, “The Greatest Love of All” with Whitney Houston’s CD playing background.
Other classes perform and do their best…
Through a process, sociopolitical forces interacted with technology to implement curriculum that affects the lives of students and teachers in a high-stakes testing school community.
Arnone, M., Small, R., Chauncey, S., & McKenna, H. H. (2011). "Curiosity, interest and engagement in technology-pervasive learning environments: a new research agenda."  Educational Technology Research & Development, 59(2), 187. doi:10.1007/s11423-011-9190-9

Monke, L. (2004). "The human touch." Education Next, 4, 4. Retrieved from: http://educationnext.org/thehumantouch/
Section 2
technology, however, must be applied cautiously and purposefully in order to be of highest value to both teachers and students. The arguments for and against of technology in the classroom have produced a deadlock that prevents technology from being used in the classroom more widely.
Computers allow everyone access to "the most immense access to knowledge and information that any society has ever known" (Miller, 2008). Students learn about doing research by searching the internet. Looking up information and researching papers with an all-embracing resource keeps students engaged in a project longer and promote learning better than only a library.
Paiget’s stages of cognitive developmental, despite technology, remain unchanged. Some students, especially younger ones, will explore outside the limits of exploring for learning and become distracted by other activities found on the internet. These younger students should be less absorbed in technology as teachers recognize that some educational goals are better achieved through non-technological methods.
Technology-enhanced lessons will have students become more engaged in and excited about otherwise tedious and more abstract subjects. Social studies, math and spelling can be much more engaging with virtual field trips, practice games, and streaming video.
Finding the appropriate online materials for integration can be, at times, complicated. Teachers will become overwhelmed and frustrated if more time is spent planning lessons, and teaching will suffer even worse. Also, integrating the age-inappropriate or less engaging materials may harm the curriculum.
Special needs students move at their own pace with technology's help. Students get individual instruction directly from the computer, allowing the less-stressed teacher to achieve more. Handicapped students, through communication software, for example, can also make use of assisted technology.
Technology that is specific to the needs of special needs students can be exceptionally expensive and can take an excessive amount of funds to acquire and operate. School districts may likely implement a less costly alternative.
Schools can secure technology grants to help with technology’s costs. Many companies, such as Google, Verizon, Microsoft and Apple, and private and public funding organizations make funds—and, at times, technological equipment—available to most school districts.
Technology, with both added equipment and manpower costs, is expensive to maintain. Schools with the smallest technology resources can spend hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. Some technologies, especially laptops, become obsolete and must be replaced every three to four years. More people will be needed to keep the technology running, as an additional technical staff is required for school districts with technology in their classrooms.
Required training for teachers and incorporating training in curriculum will keep students computer literate and allow both teachers and students to use their training in future careers.
Training can be costly and time-consuming. Many teachers, already burdened with maintenance of their teaching skills and requirements, are reluctant to participate in the extra training.
Section 4
Cuban, Larry and Pea, Roy (1998). "The pros and cons of technology in the classroom." http://tappedin.org/archive/peacuban/. Retrieved August 4, 2012.

Goldman, Shelley , Cole, Karen and Syer, Christina (1999). "The technology/content dilemma." US Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/techconf99/whitepapers/paper4.html. Retrieved August 5, 2012.

Hermitt, Andrea. "Pros and cons technology in the classroom" http://www.ehow.com/about_5384898_pros-cons-technology-classroom.html. Retrieved August 3, 2012.

Leu, Donald J., Jr. (2000). "Literacy and technology: deictic consequences for literacy education in an information age." http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~djleu/Handbook.html. Retrieved August 5, 2012.

Plowman, Lydia and Stephen, Christine (2005). "Children, play, and computers in pre-school education." British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (2), 145–157.
Dodge, T.D., Colker, L.J., Heroman, C. (2002). "The creative curriculum for preschool (4th ed.)." Washington, D.C.: Teaching Strategies, Inc.

Gray, C. (1991) Social Stories, Inc., The Gray Center for Social Learning and Understanding , Zeeland, MI www.thegraycenter.org/social-stories/how-to-write-social-stories.

Office of Child Development and Early Learning, PA Department of Education and Department of Public Welfare. (2009 Revised). "Pennsylvania learning standards for early childhood, pre-kindergarten.

Parkay, F.W., Hass, G., Anctil, E.J. (2010). "Curriculum leadership; readings for developing quality educational programs (9th ed.)." Boston, Allyn & Bacon.

Schubert, W.H. (1996). "Perspectives on four curriculum traditions." Educational Horizons, 74(4) 169-176.
Section 1
As technology has grown in usage in our schools, curriculum leaders must carefully examine the factors that influence the curriculum development process, in an effort to provide an excellent educational experience for students. Technology can be instrumental in providing a more global learning experience for our students and a more effective and efficient process for our leaders involved in development and implementation.
“Curriculum Planning involves gathering, sorting, synthesizing and selecting relevant information from many sources. This information is then used to design experiences that enable learners to attain the goals of the curriculum” Parkay, F.W., Hass, G., & Anctil, E.J. (2009).

Curriculum Leaders work together to incorporate State and federal regulations and standards, relevant theories of learning and human development, and instructional strategies to help teachers address the goals of the curriculum.
Curriculum Planning and Development
Technology can support a more accessible and global curriculum planning process through:
Websites that provide easy access to research and outcome data which may influence curriculum objectives .
Online Training and access to state and federal guidelines.
Forums such as online discussion groups, chat rooms and webinars that help curriculum leaders collaborate with colleagues in multiple locations
Technology & Curriculum Development
Provides information and resources on funding, policy, and research regarding “best practice”

Provides information regarding state standards, and SAS Standards Aligned System and OCDEL Office of Child Development and Early Learning.
Some Resources for Curriculum Leaders
In his article, “Perspectives on Four Curriculum Traditions”, Shubert presents four theoretical orientations that help to shape curriculum thought:

Intellectual Traditionalist
advocating study of the “great works” of literature, art, history, music and the natural sciences would be able to use the internet to explore texts and research these time proven bodies of knowledge.
Social Behaviorist
would be able to interact and collaborate with others via chat rooms, and discussion groups and explore new ways of learning as well as current research and development.
would also utilize chat rooms and online discussion groups, to share real life learning experiences as part of their formal education. “Social Stories” is a forum for parents and teachers to use with young children that uses personalized storytelling to help prepare them for new and somewhat scary experiences such as going to the dentist .
Critical Reconstructionist
may favor using home schooling and online learning in an atmosphere where the student will be treated more fairly, away from the inequities associated with going to a school in an impoverished district, or to avoid being categorized according to their perceived potential.
Technology and Traditional Curriculum Theory
Technology & Human Development Theory
“Knowledge of human development is an essential basis of the curriculum because it enables curriculum leaders to provide for age-related and individual differences among learners.” Parkay, Hass, & Anctil (2009).

The Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood, stress the importance of embedding the domains of development into curriculum and instructional practices.
Instruction must address cognitive, social-emotional, language and physical development
TECHNOLOGY is also a part of the PA Standards from Preschool to High School:
3.4a Scope of Technology
3.4c Technology & Engineering Design
3.4e The Design World

TECHNOLOGY is taught on a developmental continuum addressing the developmental domains.
Preschool Learners explore technology through play with phones, listen to age appropriate music on CD players, and explore preschool computer games.
Tool Use is considered a component of Preschool Technology. Examples include: flashlights, rulers and magnifying glasses.
Playing with “medical equipment”, exploring wind power, classifying types of transportation and building block structures are all examples of Preschool Technology.
The "Creative Curriculum for Preschoolers" is an example of one curriculum that teaches technology on a developmental continuum. Awareness of Technology
Basic Operations and Concepts
Technology Tools
People and Technology

TECHNOLOGY has been “instrumental” in expanding the scope of curriculum planning and development by making these processes more efficient, collaborative, global and relevant to the educational experience.
Many urban schools still lag behind other regions in various states on State Assessments even with technological introduction in their schools

This adds to the controversy over technological theoretical benefits and actual practical application benefits to schools

Advocates have over-promised the ability of education to extract a learning return on technology investments in schools

Perhaps, the error was in citing the potential of technology to fully augment learning.
Reality Check
Researchers suggests that educators step back to critically examine reformers assumptions about technology.
Redirect investments of technology funds to proven learning technology solutions
Conscientious educators facing severe budget deficits may need to re-examine their research efforts in an attempt to focus their technology investments on solutions that address profound critical challenges that schools face today. Examples include:
adolescents who are non-readers or who struggle to read fluently
adolescents who struggle with comprehension
secondary schools that report dropout rates of more than 30 percent
achievement gaps based on race or socioeconomic status (SES) and/or gender may still need technological assistance to do well
Possible Solutions?
Recommended Technology
It is highly recommended that schools or educators consider using technology that actually engage learners and provide rapid responses, such as whiteboards or quick response devices.

Descriptive studies indicate three levels of whiteboard use:
To increase efficiency, enabling teachers to draw upon a variety of ICT-based resources
To extend learning by using more engaging materials to explain concepts
To transform learning by providing learning styles stimulated by interaction with the whiteboard
Final Thoughts
Although the level of funding for research on this topic is low and there are limited studies, the quality of each study varies considerably.

Educators ought to still be encouraged to pursue steps that would enhance their technological expertise in this arena. This is critical to addressing the imbalances between theory relating to technology and actual application of technology in schools.
The Controversy Continues...
The following presentation offers an understanding of curriculum leadership as it pertains to technology. More specifically, it highlights technology’s relationship to curriculum theory, the current socio-political forces on curriculum, and the theoretical applications versus actual practice and the pros and cons of technology’s use in our schools.
The use of font styles is not included with this level of Prezi membership. APA Style has been followed with those limitations in mind. Text that should be italic has quote marks and text that should be bold is capitalized. The underlining in some of the references cannot be avoided with the Prezi software.
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