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Ashley Hartz

on 8 September 2013

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Transcript of Egypt

Pyramids of the Nile
Chapter 2-2

Essential Questions:
1.What factors led to the rise and decline of Egypt?
2. Compare the similarities and differences of Mesopotamia & Egypt.

Geography of Egypt
(Describe the geography of Egypt.)
Location= East Africa-Mediterranean Sea
Nile River is the longest river in the world (4,100 mi)
Flows northward across Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.

(What is the gift of the Nile River?)
Yearly flooding brings water and fertile black mud—silt
Farmers build irrigation system for wheat and barley
Egyptian’s worship Nile as a god

Egypt Unites into a Kingdom

(Assess the unification of Egypt.)
3200 BC=two separate kingdoms= Upper and Lower Egypt
Evidence suggest Scorpion King name Narmer
(Nar-mer) combine those of upper and lower Egypt.

Villages of Egypt ruled by two kingdoms
A. Lower Egypt
B. Upper Egypt
Unification of kingdoms-3000 BC.
Crown worn by Narmer=unification.
Establishes first Egyptian dynasty

Environmental Challenges
(Analyze the Environmental Challenges.)
Light floods reduce crops=starvation
Heavy floods destroy property; deserts isolate and protect Egyptians
Natural barriers (deserts) forced people to live on a very small portion of land=reduced interaction with others.

(Summarize the main difference between the flooding of the Nile and that of the rivers in Mesopotamia?)
Egypt Nile=Regular flooding
Mesopotamia Tigris & Euphrates= unpredictable flooding
Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt

(Identify a cataract and the delta of the Nile region.)
Cataract—churning rapids

River area
of First Cataract is elevated, becomes Upper Egypt
River area
, including Nile delta, becomes Lower Egypt
—land formed by silt deposits at mouth of river; triangular

Why were Egypt’s pharaohs usually powerful rulers?
Egyptian kings=gods AKA pharaohs

How did building the pyramids show the power of the Egyptian pharaohs?
Powerful leaders could get people to build a pyramid
Pharaohs control:
1. Religion
2. Government
3. Army
4. Well-being of kingdom

=Government rule based on religious authority

Egyptian Culture
(Outline the Egyptian belief system: Explain Re, Osiris, and Isis.)
Kings believed to rule even after death-A.K.A
Sun God
(Oh-SY-rihs): God of the dead
ideal mother and wife

How did the Egyptian belief in an afterlife compare to that of the Sumerians?
=A beautiful Other World (ONLY IF PURE)
=Gods ignored them after life ; therefore lived in dismal, gloomy place.

Egyptian Afterlife
What evidence can you give that the Egyptians believe in an afterlife?
Construction of tombs and pyramids=belief in afterlife

(Describe the process of mummification.)
: drying and embalming the corpse to prevent it from decaying.

Steps of mummifying:
Extract the brain through nose
Incision in the side-remove all bowels
Fill body with perfumes and oils
Sew it up
Wipe body down with mineral salt, wrap body in bandages of waxen cloth.

Book of the Dead contains prayers and spells, guides soul after death

(What were Hieroglyphics and papyrus?)

=writing system, pictures represent ideas
=paper like sheets made from reeds used for writing

(Why was a good education important in Ancient Egypt?)
Reading and writing=move to a higher social class.

(Summarize the main achievements of the ancient Egyptians.)
Egyptians invent calendar of 365 days and 12 months
Develop system of written numbers & a form of geometry
Skilled engineers and architects construct palaces, pyramids
Egyptian medicine famous in the ancient world

(Analyze the events that led to the rise and decline of the kingdoms of the ancient Egyptian Empire.)
Old Kingdom:
Power of Pharaohs declines about 2180 B.C.

Middle Kingdom:
(2040 to 1640 B.C.)
some pharaohs regain control

How did the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom improve life for the common people?
Pharaohs Improve:
Dig a canal from Nile-Red Sea
Drain swamps for farms

New Kingdom:
Hyksos move into Egypt from Palestine; rule from 1630 to 1523 B.C.

Invaders Control Egypt
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