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ADVANCED SIX (A06F)

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Augusto Casablanca

on 8 July 2015

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Transcript of ADVANCED SIX (A06F)

As we saw the guns, he chose to flee.


Because I arrived late, I missed the show.


Since he hadn't done his HW, he was punished.
3. ______ it's sunny will we go to the beach.
5. ______ you tell me truth, I won't help you. (if you want me to help you, tell me the truth.)
4. ______ you tell me truth, I won't help you. (It doesn't matter if you tell me the truth.. I won't help you.)
6. You will feel better ______ you stop eating junk food.
1. You won't pass ______ you study. (you will fail anyways.)
2. You won't pass ______ you study. (if you want to pass, study!)
Adverb Clauses

Are these Independent or dependent clauses?
5. they're going on a picnic

6. mom found it on the table

7. the little kids sang

8. when the movie is over
1. when Mr. Jones yelled

2. I enjoy basketball

3. unless it comes today

4. after I lost the library book
Independent
Dependent
Independent
Independent
Independent
Dependent
Dependent
Dependent
After
I work
,
I relax.
I relax after I work.
When
the sun comes out
,
we go to the beach.
We go to the beach when the sun comes out.
Identify the dependent clause.
Adverb clauses
=
dependent clauses
(how, when, where, why, conditions, contrast)
subordinating conjunctions
after
since
anywhere
now that
unless
even though
+
dependent clauses
will
I get married after I graduate.
After I graduate, I
will
get married.
She call you once she finishes her HW.
For future time
is going to
Once she finishes her HW, she
's going to
call you.
Only if
Only if you follow my advice

succeed.
You
will
succeed only if you follow my advice.
I
will
go only if you pay for my food. xD
Only if you pay for my food

go. xD
^
^
will
you
will
I
Adverb and
Adverbial Phrases

Before I returned, I visited Machu Picchu.
Before
returning
, I visited Machu Picchu.
Clause
Phrase
Subject
Verb
From a Clause to a Phrase
While
I

was eating
, I watched TV.


She checked her e-mail while
she was playing
.


When
I

am traveling
, I keep a journal.


I called my mom while
I was
inside.
Upon
,
While

playing
, she checked her e-mail.
While
,
eating
playing.
traveling
Time
After - Before - Since - While
Before we left, we had breakfast.


After they investigated, they identified the killers.


Since I lived in Lima, I always visit my mother.
Since
in Lima, I always visit my mother.
Before
, we had breakfast.
After
, they identified the killers.
leaving
investigating
living
Before I ate my dessert, I finished the soup.



After we had done our HW, we went out.
Simple Past
Past Perfect
Before
After
having done
eating
Upon - On
When I saw her, I smiled.
Upon
On
seeing her,
When she finished, she felt good.
Upon
On
finishing,
Reason

the guns, he chose to flee.
late, I missed the show.
Arriving
his HW, he was punished.
Not
Seeing
I called my mom
while

only if you start with the adverb can you omit it.
having done
Remember!
Can the sentence be
shortened
if the
subjects
are
different
?
While
Rose
was listening to music,
I
was doing my homework.
(While)
listening
to music,
I
was doing my homework.
Do they have the same meaning?
Connectors
Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinators
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S

or
o
et
r
ut
or
nd
He’s rich
, for
he worked very hard.

He’s famous
,

so
he's rich.

He’s poor
, but
he’s happy.

Effect / Result
Cause / Reason
Contrast
Condition
Addition
so
for
but, or, yet
or
and, nor
?
NOR
(negative ideas)
AND
(affirmative ideas)
I need a book
, AND
she needs a pen.
I
DON'T
need a book
, NOR
she needs a pen.
AND / NOR
He went to the party
,
_____ now he is grounded.
She's not tall
,
_____ she cares about it.
AND
NOR
Subordinating Conjunctions
Time
Cause / Reason
Contrast
Condition
as, because, since
after, before, when, while
if, even if, only if, unless
although, though, even though, whereas, while
Transitions
Time
Addition
Contrast
Condition
besides, furthermore, indeed, in addition, moreover
afterwards, meanwhile, next
otherwise
however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand
Effect / Result
consequently, otherwise, therefore, thus
Punctuation
I need to eat healthy. I won't have energy.
(otherwise)
I need to eat healthy


.
,
Otherwise
I need to eat healthy.

I won't
,
otherwise
I need to eat healthy. I won't have energy .
,
otherwise
;
,
,
clause
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
clause
I won't have energy.
have energy.
When
I arrived home
,
I took a shower.
I took a shower
when
I arrived home.
If the
subordinate clause
comes
first
,
it is followed by a
comma
.
How the crime was committed is still a mystery.
He doesn’t know if the story is true or not.
The problem is that there is little evidence.

It's obvious that she's happy.
NOUN CLAUSES
Kinds of NOUN CLAUSES
THAT

clauses
WH

clauses
IF
/

WHETHER

clauses
Come from

statements
1.
Come from

WH-

questions
Come from

YES
/
NO

questions
2.
3.
1. THAT clauses
(come from sentences)
I know
(that) they bought the car
.
The bad news is
(that) we lost the game
.
It's clear
(that) he was angry
.
That they bought the car
I know.
That we lost the game
is the bad news.
That he was angry
is clear.
1. WH- clauses
(come from WH- sentences)
Where are you going to go later?
It's obvious
where I am going to go later.
To study English.
:D
What did you do last Summer?
what you did last Summer.
Where he got the idea
What she actually wants
is the mystery.
How she knew that
is the question.

is clear .
It's clear
where he got the idea
.
The questions is
how she knew that
.
The mystery is
what she actually wants
.
I know
3. IF / WHETHER clauses
come from YES / NO questions
I don't know
if
they
'll come
tonight.
WILL they come tonight?
Were you allowed to do that?
I want to know
if
you were allowed to do that
(or not)
.
whether
you were allowed to do that
(or not)
.
whether

(or not)
you were allowed to do that.
Direct and Indirect speech
She said,
"
I want a car.
"
He asked me,
"
Do you need a ride?
"

She said
(that) she wanted a car.
He asked

if you needed a ride

Direct
Indirect
Direct
Indirect
Quotations
She said
, "
I'm going to go to the party.
"
She said

"she was going to go to the party
.
"
Say - Tell
simple past.
usually used in the
The teacher said us to finish.
We told Alex to be on time.
I told her to listen to me.
She said she was going to be late.
Yes / No questions
IF
/ Whether
we usually use in the
ask
simple past
Can you tell me the answer?
Were you able to finish the race?
Will you go to the party?
She asked me
if

(or not)
.
I asked him
whether (or not)

He asked
whether

(or not)
.
I would go to the party
we had been able to finish the race
he could tell me the answer
.
WH- questions
When is she traveling?


How did you get it?


Who are you?
They asked him
He asked me
She asked me
when
she was traveling
.
how
I had gotten it
.
who
he was
.
Simple Present
Present Continuous
Simple Past
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Past continuous
Present Perfect continuous
Past Perfect continuous
Will
Can
May
Must
Would / Could / Might / ought to / Should
--------------------
Had to
Might
Simple Past
Could
Would
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Reported
Clause / Command / Questions
1. Ana to Rosa: Can you be here later?
2. Teacher to Students: Turn on the fans.
3. Dad to Son: Have you finished your homework?
4. Mom to Sister: I won't go with him.
5. Alex to me: What do I have to do?
6. Lex and Chris to Renzo: We'll go tomorrow.
7. Renzo to them: Are you going to finish today?
8. John to Ana: How many times have you traveled?
9. Ana to John: I visited my sister last month.
10. Sister to Brother: I'm leaving now.
Conditionals
and other ways to express Unreality
Present Real Conditional
If
you
don't water
plants
Plants

die

if
you
don't water
them.
If
you
score
10 points in this game
If
she
's
late to study
You
win

if
you
score
10 points in this game.
She
runs
if
she
's
late to study.
they
die
.
she
runs
.
you
win
.
condition
Result
,
,
,
RESULT
clause and
IF
clause
Simple Present
both are in the...
When we want to

present UNREAL conditionals
?
When do we use the…
When we want to

past UNREAL conditionals
?
When do we use the…
If we
had
super powers, we
could
save the world!
But we
DON'T HAVE
super powers, so we
can't
save it :(
If he
weren't
sick, he'
d
go to the party.
But he
IS
sick, so he
won't
go to the party. =(
If cats
could sing
, they
would
be better than you! xD
But cats
CAN'T sing
, ...
If I
were
a monster, I
wouldn't
frighten kids.
But I
'M NOT
a monster, ...
If I
had
a professional camera, I
would
be super happy.
But I
DON'T HAVE

a professional camera, ...
+
Base form
If I
had
a professional camera, I'
d
be super happy.
If
I
were
a monster, I
wouldn't
frighten kids.
If
cats
could sing
, they
would
be better than you!
If
he
weren't
sick, he
'd
go to the party.
If
we
had
super powers, we
could
save the world.
WOULD
IF
+
RESULT clause
IF clause
Simple past
COULD
If he
had studied
, he
would have
gotten an A.
But he
didn't study
, so he got an F.
If I
hadn't gone

to that party, I
wouldn't have met
him
.
But I
went
, so I met him :D
If we
had accepted
that challenge, we
would've won
first place.
But we
didn't accept
, so we didn't win 1st place.
If I
had been

more loving, she
wouldn't have
cheated on me.
But I
wasn't
loving enough, so she cheated on me.
If I
hadn't

argued

with my mom, I
would've
gone to the party.
But I
argued
with her, so I didn't go to the party. :(
Past Participle
WOULD
IF
+
RESULT clause
IF clause
Past Perfect
COULD
If he
had

Studied
, he
would have
gotten an A.
If I
hadn't gone

to that party, I
wouldn't have
met

him
.
If we
had accepted
that challenge, we
would've
won

first place.
If I
had been

more loving, she
wouldn't have
cheated on me.
If I
hadn't argued

with my mom, I
would've
gone to the party.
+
HAVE
+
describe present IMPROBABLE situations
MIGHT
describe situations
that could've happened but didn't.
MIGHT
Mixed Conditionals
Present and Past unreal combined :)
I didn't study, so now I'm nervous! :S
If I
had studied
I
wouldn't be

nervous.
,
She had a terrible accident, so now she's more careful.

They don't talk anymore because they had a fight.

He never ate healthy food. Now he has weight problems.

I have so much homework. That's why I didn't go to the party last night.
If I didn't have so much homework,

If he had eaten healthy food,

If she hadn't had a terrible accident,

They would talk
she wouldn't be more careful.
if they hadn't had a fight.
he wouldn't have weight problems.
I would've gone to the party.
UNREAL CONDITIONALS
to express
WISH
REGRET
Future
Present
Past
I
wish
(that) I
could go
with you tomorrow.
(I want to go)
She
wishes
(that) you
would finish
early.
(she wants you to finish early)
WISH
+
(that) Noun clause
Subj
+
COULD
WOULD
+
base form
I want you to visit me one day.

She wants to travel next month.

They want to play basketball.
I wish (that) you could visit me one day.
They wish (that) they could play basketball.
She wishes (that) she would travel next month.
I
wish
(that) he
didn't talk
that much.
(He talks a lot)
She
wishes
(that) you
were
more responsible.
(I'm not very responsible)
WISH
+
(that) Noun clause
Subj
+
SIMPLE PAST
I
wish
(that) he
didn't talk
that much.
(He talks a lot)
She
wishes
(that) you
were
more responsible.
(I'm not very responsible)
If only
(that) he
didn't talk
that much.
If only
(that) you
were
more responsible.
IF ONLY
+
(that) Noun clause
She drinks a lot.


He isn't fast enough.


I can't play the piano.
If only she didn't drink a lot.
If only I could play the piano.
If only he were fast enough.
I wish (that) she didn't drink a lot.
I wish (that) he were fast enough.
I wish (that) I could play the piano.
SIMPLE PAST
Subj
+
I
wish
(that) I
had participated
more.
(I didn't participate)
She
wishes
(that) she
hadn't been
absent.
(She was absent)
WISH
+
(that) Noun clause
Subj
+
PAST PERFECT
I
wish
(that) I
had participated
more.
(I didn't participate)
She
wishes
(that) she hadn't been absent.
(She was absent)
If only
(that) I
had participated
more.
If only
(that) she
hadn't been
absent.
IF ONLY
+
(that) Noun clause
She drank a lot.


He wasn't fast enough.


I didn't go to my classes.
If only she hadn't drunk a lot.
If only I had gone to my classes.
If only he had been fast enough.
She wishes (that) she hadn't drunk a lot.
He wishes (that) he had been fast enough.
I wish (that) I had gone to my classes.
PAST PERFECT
Subj
+
More Conditionals
The Subjunctive
Nonstandard
Inverted
Subjunctive
The condition is implied
(not mentioned but clear)
If we have a bit of luck, we'll find a place for here.

If you hadn't helped, I wouldn't have done it.

If he didn't have his car, he wouldn't be okay.

She might be lucky because if she is lucky, she'll meet some new friends.

He may get the chance because if he doesn't get the chance, he won't finish.

She is sad because if she weren't sad, she wouldn't call him.
She is sad
;
WITH

,
WITHOUT
,
BUT FOR
She might be lucky
;
He may get the chance
;
we'll find a place for that.
I wouldn't have done it.
he wouldn't be okay.
she'll meet some new friends.
he won't finish.
she wouldn't call him.
If she hadn't run, she would have missed the bus.
She ran;
otherwise,
she would have missed the bus.
I might buy a house
; if so,
it will be close to work.
With
some more money, we would be able to buy a house.
But for
his dedication, he wouldn't have a job now.
If I buy a house, it will be close to work.
If he didn't have his dedication, he wouldn't have a job now.
If we had some more money, we would be able to buy a house.
If he were in love, he would get married.

If he weren't sick, he would be here.

If I had seen you, I would've called you.

If we do it, we will celebrate.
Were

Should

Were
Had
Omitting IF
in love, he would get married.
he
sick, he would be here.
he
NOT
you, I would've called you.
I
seen
it, we will celebrate.
we
do
If I were you, I wouldn't do that.
Should anyone call
, please take the message.
Had I known the truth
, I would have never talked to you.
Were I you
, I wouldn't do that.
If they hadn't done it, they wouldn't have passed.
If anyone calls, please take the message.
If I had known the truth, I would have never talked to you.
Had they not done it
, They wouldn't have passed.
I
will propose
(that)
NOT
^
NOT
^
NOT
^
NOT
^
NOT
^
I
propose
(that)
I
have proposed
(that)
I
am going to propose
(that)
I
propose
(that) she in the party.
I
proposed
(that)
sing
he
sing
in the party.
you
sing
in the party.
she
sing
in the party.
he
sing
in the party.
I
have proposed
(that) she
be checked
by a doctor.
I
am going to propose
(that) she
be checked
by a doctor.
I
will propose
(that) she
be checked
by a doctor.
I
proposed
(that) she

be checked
by a doctor
she be checked
by a doctor.
Condition
Even if
Unless
I won't go
even if
he invites me.
She will be late tomorrow
even if
she sleeps early.
Even if
he invites me, I won't go.

Even if
she sleeps early, she will be late tomorrow.
She will find it
unless
you hide it in your room.
You won't watch TV
unless
you finish your hw.
Unless
you hide it in your room, she will find it.
Unless
you finish your hm, you won't watch TV.
if... not
You won't watch TV
if

you

don't
finish your hw.
She will find it
if

you

don't
hide it in your room.
Complete with
only if
-
even if
-
unless
only if
only if
even if
even if
unless
unless
BE
we omit
and
I watched Tv
while
eating
.
She checked her e-mail
while
I keep a journal
upon
traveling
.
While
inside, I called my mom.
subject
we omit the
While I was traveling, I ate a salad.



While she was talking to me, she received the money .
Talking
to me, she received the money.
While traveling, I ate a salad.
Traveling
, I ate a salad.
While talking to me, she received the money.
I watched Tv.
I keep a journal.
inside.
the verb
the Subject
Verb
+

ing
our HW,
we went out.
my dessert,
I finished the soup.
we understand which happened first so....
Having + past participle
is optional.
Having +
past
participle
I smiled.
she felt good.
1. After we didn't go to the party, we were never invited again.

2. While my mom cleaned the house, she found my cell phone.

3. When Alex reached 3 years working, he decided to change jobs.

4. Before you take out your books, you have to finish the exercises.

5. I went to the house while I was singing.

6. They ate everything they could have after they saw the banquet.
(While)
cleaning
the house, she found my cell phone.
They ate everything they could have

after
seeing
the banquet.
I went to the house

(while)
singing.
Before
taking out
your books, you have to finish the exercises.
After
not going
to the party, we were never invited again.
On
/
upon
reaching
3 years working, he decided to change jobs.
Since
I didn't study, I failed the exam. =(
I failed the exam
because
I didn't study. =(
Not studying,
I failed the exam. =(
not studying. =(
I failed the exam
subject
object
adjective complements
subject complement
Subject
Object
Subject complement
adjective complement
That clause
It'
s
clear (that) he's smart.

They said (that) I look weird. :S

That he's smart
is
clear.

That I look weird they said.
complement or object noun clause...

is optional
that
Subject noun clause...

is necessary
that
complement noun clause
object noun clause
subject noun clause
subject noun clause
The fact that
That
he's smart is clear.

That
your computer works well is perfect.

That
she was present was obvious.
The fact that
he's smart is clear.
The fact that
your computer works is perfect.
The fact that
she was present was obvious.
subject noun clauses
replaces that in
I'm impressed
by the fact
that she can sing.


She's sad
by the fact that
her mom left.


They're hungry
by the fact

that
they didn't eat anything.
I'm impressed
by that
she can sing.
She's sad
by that
her mom left.
They're hungry
by that
they didn't eat anything.
a bit of luck
your help
his car,
IF SO,

IF NOT,
OTHERWISE,
Full transcript