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Rabbiha Syeda

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Water

How might Third World Countries purify water in an economically cost efficient way?
Solar Water Disinfection
SWD is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make infectious diseased water safe to drink. It rids the water of microscopic biological elements such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms.
Life Straw
The LifeStraw is a water filtration device used by one person to filter water so that it is safe to drink. It filters a maximum of 1000 liters of water, which is enough for a year's worth of drinking.
Interesting Facts: It removes 99.9999% of waterborne bacteria and pesticides.
It removes 99.9% of parasites.
It removes 99.99% of viruses.
Pure Water Bottle Filter
The "Pure Water Bottle Filter" is a filtration device that is in the shape of a water bottle. It filters water with the power of UV rays. There are exactly 2 chambers, an Outer and Inner.
The Outer chamber is where you put the dirty, contaminated water and then after turning the crank, the water is transfering into the Inner chamber.
In the Inner Chamber the water is zapped with a UV sterilizer and there you have clean fresh water. This device was invented by Timothy Whitehead to purify water in 2 minutes flat.
Interesting Fact: It purifies 99.9% of all the water's impurities.

These are some ways Third World Countries can purify their water in an economically cost efficient way. Now we'd like to compare that to ways us, First World Countries Purify water.

Because First World Countries have more money, we can use a more high advanced and expensive way to purify water then third world countries.
Solar disinfection using the effects of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels. (Solar PV)
It usually uses an electrical current to deliver electrolytic processes which disinfects the water.
Solar Thermal
The Solar Thermal method uses heat from the sun to heat the water to 70°C - 100°C for a small period of time.
Solar heat collectors have lenses or reflectors at the front of them to attract heat. The insulation levels vary.
Interesting Fact: Water at 100°C is referred to as pasteurized water.

By: Rabbiha, Jessica and Demi.

Solar Ultraviolet Water Disinfection

SUVD is a method of disinfecting water only using sunlight and plastic bottles. This method is recommended for home use by WHO (World Health Organization)
This method is more renowned as SODIS.
Desalination is the process of extracting salt and other minerals from salt water.
Vacuum distillation is the base of desalination. First you boil water at a less then atmosphere pressure and then this will result in a much lower temperature then usual. This is because boiling water occurs when the vapor pressure equals to the ambient pressure and thus resulting in the vapor pressure increasing with temperature. (Reverse Osmosis)

Solar Thermal
PET bottles(polyethylene terephthalate)are the types of bottles used for SODIS. SODIS has stopped diarrheal diseases ranging from 9%-86%. There is literally no cost if recycled bottles are being used. 28 countries rely on SODIS . However the time period is substantial: 2-6 hours if it is sunny and 2 days if not.
Solar Ultraviolet
There is a brand called Solvatten which is of a swedish descent. The design has 2 5 litre compartments. In Kenya, 13,000 people use it and now save $150-$250/ year. In India, 375 households, or 2,100 people use it as well. In Mali, 98% of the population used charcoal and firewood. This caused respiratory diseases. Now because of Solvatten there has been a 60% deduction of charcoal and 11% deduction in firewood. And also, for every family or person who used Solvatten, 1-2 tons of carbon dioxide is also deducted. (these calculations have been taken in November 2012)

Information from 2012 says that $30 million has been invested into the lifestraw program. This very small filter has the capability to filter 1,000 litres which the amount that a human drinks per year. 37% of the 884 million people who don't have access to clean water live in Africa. In the country of Kenya, 10% of the population there have access to clean water. The other 90% will either boil the water or, because the firewood does cost money, will just drink the heavily contaminated water. Now there have been 900,000 lifestraws donated to Kenya, so now 90% of Kenyan households will have clean water.
Desalination will probably become more well known then it is now. Why I say this is because there are 15,988 desalination plants world wide. So far there are 150 countries who use this method. In America, there is a total of 17.5 billion U.S. gallons that is the maximum capacity of all the desalination plants. And world wide, a total of 300 million people rely on desalinated water to drink or for other purposes.
In terms of economics, the electrical way to disinfect water using solar pv panels mostly depends on the price of panels. Through a little research I was able to find some prices, solar panels are very expensive: For 90 watts that costs $399,250 watts costs $379, 390 watts costs $950. And if by any chance you wanted 8 panels that costs $2,952, or 12 panels your looking at $4,123.
The pure water bottle filter is another great way to purify water easily. Through a little bit of research, the prices on the internet range from $2.64-$8.05. The total average was $8.16 for a vast amount of selection. This filter is also becoming well known to third world countries.
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