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Brown v. Board of Education
Transcript of Brown v. Board of Education
Education The Fight For Freedom A Changed Nation Short Term Effects Little Rock Nine Long Term Effects During the Case Cases Plessy v. Ferguson Segregation in Public School Systems White vs. Colored Started when an African American man refused to sit in the "colored car" in 1896
Developed the "separate but equal" policy Combination of 5 different cases all seen in the Supreme court under the name Brown v. Board of Education.
1.) Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas)
2.) Briggs v. Elliot (South Carolina)
3.) Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (Virginia)
4.) Gebhart v. Belton (Delaware)
5.) Bolling v. Sharp (Washington DC) •First black students to participate in integration
•NINE students at LITTLE ROCK high school
•101st Airborne Division and Arkansas National Guard were stationed at the school
•Encountered both racial and physical abuse •Official military integration (occurred in the 1960s)
•Major Historians: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr....
•CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT White Schools Colored In Conclusion... Bibliography Pictures Books Jennifer Liu
Juliette Tinebra http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/brownvboard/brownnews.jpg
http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/4-five/images/liberty-hill-colored.jpg Websites http://www.history.com/topics/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka
http://www.watson.org/lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html New supplies
High funding from the Board of Education
Low ratio of students to teachers Other Advantages Were often close to home
Interior was nicer
Heating Few books, all low-quality ("donated" from the white schools)
Teachers were paid lower salaries
37% more students (per teacher) than white schools
Black schools were isolated, and usually a few miles away The white government did For example, in Halifax County (Virginia), white schools had a total funding of $561,262, while colored schools only had $176,881. not want to fund schools for African Americans because of the fear that if educated, blacks would challenge white supremacy. What is Segregation? The separation or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group by discriminatory means Merriam-Webster: Multiple studies showed that white and black schools were not equal. It was obvious that colored schools were inferior to their white counterparts. This led to the Brown v. Board of Education case, which, contrary to what most believe, was a series of multiple court cases all combined under one name. "Separating black children from others simply because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone...A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law tends to impede the educational and mental development of black children and deprives them of some of the benefits they would receive in an integrated school system." On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that public school systems were to be desegregated. However, this did not extend to other public areas, such as restaurants and bathrooms, and there was not a specified time limit in which desegregation must be enforced. •Little to no school desegregation
•Only desegregation was in schools
•Job opportunities were still poor
•Black teachers were suddenly fired Gloria Ray Terrance Roberts Melba Patillo Elizabeth Eckford Ernest Green Minnijean Brown Jefferson Thomas Carlotta Walls Thelma Mothershed "Brown v. Board of Education: It's Impact in Public Education"
A publication of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund "In Brown's Wake"
Martha Minow The amendment under question was the 14th amendment.
Earl Warren was the Chief justice during this case, he supported integration of public schools.
Warren argued that the only reason to sustain segregation was an honest belief in the inferiority of African Americans.
He further explained that in order to remain an institution of liberty, they must over turn the ruling for Plessy v. Ferguson. The Ruling Unanimous (despite numerous reports saying that the court members were sharply divided).
Segregation was demolished because "even if segregated black and white schools were equal quality in facilities and teachers, segregation itself was harmful to black students and unconstitutional."