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Introduction to Religions

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by

Andrea Defilippi

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Introduction to Religions

Why do people feel that they need
religion in their lives? World Religions Taoism Judaism Buddhism Islam Hinduism Christianity You are going to teach us everything
we need to know about
World Religions and Belief systems!! Confucianism Judaism S
H
A
H
A
D
A Christianity H
A
J
J Islam S
A
L
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T Buddhism Hinduism S
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M Taoism Confucianism Holy Book – Torah (1st 5 books of Old Testament)
Holy Days –
• Rosh Hashanah – reviewing relationship with God
• Passover – commemorates Exodus from Egypt
• Yom Kippur – day of Atonement
• Hanukkah – celebrates victory of Maccabees over Syrians & Greeks in Jerusalem Practices- Shabbat – seventh day in the Jewish week for rest and contemplation
- Kosher – food that is considered to be fit to eat Where started: Mesopotamia
When started: 1800 BCE
Abraham made the first covenant with God. Moses renewed the covenant and led them from Egypt.
10 commandments are the moral codes of Judaism Continuous push from the Promised Land:
-famine 1800 BCE– forced to migrate to Egypt
-weak by divisions 722 BCE – Israel fell to Assyrians -135 AD – Romans pushed Jews from Jerusalem and forbade them to return – Diaspora
-1948 AD – Jewish State of Israel established Spread
-This religion spread to other parts of the world because of their forced dispersal – diaspora
-Wherever Jews settled, they carefully maintained their traditions Fast Facts:
Who started: Jesus Christ (Jew with new beliefs)
When started: 30 CE
Where started: Israel
Currently: 1st largest religion– 2.3 billion – 33% Beliefs:
-10 commandments given to Moses by God
-Jesus is the son of God and the Messiah (savior) that the Jews had been expecting
-Bible – holy book – includes old and new testaments Spread:
-Missionaries – Paul
-Eventually will become official religion of Roman Empire
-Trade
-Exploration to new world Practices:
- Church on Sunday
- Baptism – to take away original sin
- Communion – body and blood of Christ Fast Facts:
When started: 622 CE
Where started: Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Who started: Muhammad – trade merchant
Currently: 2nd largest religion – 1.5 billion – 21% Spread:
•Islam was spread through military conquest and trade
•Arabs treated conquered people fairly and allowed them to practice their own religion – but due to their acceptance of others, most conquered people converted to Islam Beliefs:
•Angel Gabriel commanded Muhammad to spread the message of Islam
•Muhammad made the hijra trip from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE – because of persecution – first year of Muslim Calender Z
A
K
A
T Profession of
faith (Allah and
Muhammad) Ritual prayer 5
times a day Pilgrimage to
Mecca Fasting during
Ramadan Almsgiving -
giving to those
who have less Fast Facts:
When started: 500 BCE
Who started: Confucius
Where started: China
Currently: 4th largest religion - 6 million – .09% Spread:
•Typically practiced in
correlation with Taoism and
Buddhism
•China, Korea, Vietnam Unique to Confucianism:
•People are naturally good
•Education is road to
advancement
•Social order depends on
accepting ones place in society Beliefs:
Holy Book: Analects – Confucian teachings
•Accept given place in society
•Defined by 5 key relationships
(1)ruler and subject
(2)parent and child
(3)husband and wife
(4)older sibling and younger sibling
(5)friend and friend
•Stressed the importance of filial piety Fast Facts:
When started: 520 BCE
Who started: Siddhartha Gautama
Where started: NE India
Currently: 4th largest religion -400 million – 5.8% Beliefs:
4 Noble Truths –
(1) life is suffering
(2) the origins of suffering is attachment
(3) the end of suffering is attainable
(4) the path to ending suffering is the eightfold path


Practices:
•Meditation
•Mantras
•Tripitaka – holy collection –
“Three Baskets of Wisdom”
•Ultimate goal = Nirvana Spread:
•Traders and missionaries
spread Buddhism to
China, Japan, Korea,
and Southeast Asia The Middle Way – between the two extremes
of strictness and pleasure-seeking Polytheistic –
Brahman – creator
Vishnu – preserver
Shiva - destroyer Fast Facts:
•Who founded: No single founder –
grew out of mix of existing beliefs
•Where founded: India•When founded: unclear
•Currently: 3rd largest religion – 1 billion – 13%
•Possibly got its name from Persian word for
river - Hindu Major Beliefs:
•Through fulfilling one’s dharma, you will have
good karma, and eventually if you keep moving
upward in the rebirth cycle of your soul –
reincarnation - you will reach Moksha – union
with Brahman
•Entire belief is based on the caste system of India
that you are born into – thanks to Gandhi,
modern Hinduism’s dharma is not based on the
same caste system Sacred Text:
•Vedas and Upanishads
•Bhagavad Gita – poems
Spread:
•Cultural diffusion through
trade spread Hinduism to
areas near India
•Silk road Negative
Female
Night
Passive
Moon
Intuitive
Cold
Soft Positive
Male
Day
Active
Sun
Logical
Hot
Hard Fast Facts:
When Founded: 550 BCE
Where Founded: China
Who Founded: Lao Tze
Currently: 7 million - .1% Beliefs:
•Ultimate goal is the Tao (the way)
•All humans are born pure but not
perfect – everyone capable of
achieving the Tao Focus of Taoism:
* achieving immortality through diet,
exercise, mindfulness of self, living
morally in accordance with the Tao
Full transcript