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Chapter 11 Presentation: The Enlightenment and Rococo
Transcript of Chapter 11 Presentation: The Enlightenment and Rococo
Christopher Wren was commissioned to rebuild 52 churches, the most significant being Saint Paul’s Cathedral. This cathedral contained Gothic, renaissance and baroque styles. It also an inscription of “RESURGRAM” which means reborn in Latin—above a mural of a phoenix rising from the ashes, this was symbolic because the Cathedral rises above the city. The English Enlightenment and New Rationalism The Scientific Revolution Empirical thinking that dominated the Western Mind.
"Scientia," knowledge in Latin, was to be found in the world, not in religion. (1561-1626)
English scientist and biggest proponent of the empirical method in the 17th century Rene Descartes (1596-1649)
Distrusted almost everything both our thought and observational senses can and do deceive us.
“Cogito, ergo sum” I think, therefore I am.
“Cartesian” dualism/thinking dictates there is an absolute distinction between mind and matter and therefore, between the metaphysical soul and the physical body Francis Bacon Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Made detailed records of the movements of the planets sustained Copernicus’s idea of that the planets orbited the sun, not the earth. A Geocentric (earth-centered) cosmos was replaced with a Heliocentric (sun-centered) theory.
Challenged the thought that orbits of planets were spherical, and showed that the five known planets traveled in an elliptical path, which was determined by the magnetic force of the sun and their relative distance from it. Galileo Galilei improved the magnification of the telescope, through which he could see the craters of the moon, the phases of Venus, sunspots, and the moons of Jupiter.
Theorized that light takes a certain amount of time to travel from one place to another either as a particle or wave it travels at a measurable uniform speed.
Law of Gravity
1615: Galileo was forced to explain his ideas to the Pope and was promptly exiled, then appealed to the next Pope and was forced to publicly repent and spend his life in a villa outside of Florence. Isaac Newton
Demonstrated that the universe was an intelligible system, well-ordered in it’s operations and guiding principles.
Calculated the law of universal gravitation in a precise mathematical equation.
Newton’s "Principia" contained experiments that demonstrated his laws of physics Textiles were a driving force of the Industrial Revolution due to the high demand and ease of production. The Industrial Revolution New machinery and factories created a supply of consumer goods unprecedented in history. Patented by Richard Arkwright, the water frame, a water wheel, was installed in cotton mill factories in 1771. After the 1780's mills sprang up in urban areas, which increased England's cotton output by 800 percent and accounted for 40 percent of the nation's exports. Steam Power in Textile Factories Iron Production Abraham Darby discovered how to cost-effectively cast iron and and patented it in 1750. Innovations of The Industrial Revolution John Locke Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Author of "Leviathan"
Argued that humankind's only hope was to submit to a higher authority.
Supported the idea of the social contract: people believed and recognized their own depravity; therefore, they were willing to submit to governance. (1632-1704)
Author of "Essay on Human Understanding"
Argued that by nature people are free, equal and independent.
Supported the idea that people were capable of governing themselves.
People are born with a"Tabla Rasa," "Blank Slate," which is filled with what we learn and how we learned it. John Milton's Paradise lost John Milton served in Oliver Cromwell's government during the commonwealth. He studied epics of classical literature and was determined to write his own.
Paradise Lost is the greatest poem of English 17th century, written in black verse, by John Milton (1608-1674). It was published in 1667 in ten books or sections. The second edition was published in 1674 which changed the poem into 12 books (division of Virgil's Aeneid). Paradise Lost The subject of Paradise Lost poem is about the loss of paradise by Adam and Eve and their descendants. It also talks about Satan and how he was called Lucifer (an angel in heaven) and also how he led a war against God. Then he eventually was sent to hell. And because of the revenge Satan wanted, he caused the man's downfall by turning into serpent and tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit. You can also find this story in first pages of Genesis, but Milton just expanded it in a long narrative poem.
The battle between Lucifer and God represented the English Civil War with its council and its bids for leadership on both sides. Many reader viewed God as a figure for Stuart monarchy and Satan as Cromwell. The tension between absolute rule and civil liberty of the individual were the issues that separated God from Satan are clearly the issues dividing England in the seventeenth century. Satire: Enlightenment Wit Not very many people thought that the direction in which England was heading in eighteenth century was for the better.
London was crowed with the activities. During the 18th century, rich and the middle class started to abandon the city, moving west into Mayfair and Marylebone. In the heart of London, newly immigrants started to fill the houses abandoned by the middle class, which were subdivided into tenements.
The poor people lived in East End (the area contained by old London Wall). The streets were narrow and everything was old. Prostitution, drunkenness, assaults, and robbery was a normal thing.
The writers and artists, such as William Hogarth and Jonathan Swift, thought that they might be able to return England to it's proper path by exposing the so called "dark side" of Enlightenment. Hogarth and the Popular Print In 1743, thousands of English people were addicted to gin because they wanted to escape from misery of poverty.
In 1751, William Hogarth published "Gin Lane" which is basically about how people started to drink to escape from all the worries and poverty. Hogarth wrote " In gin lane every circumstance of its (gin's) horrid effects are brought to view; nothing but idleness, Poverty, misery, and ruin are to be seen..... a not a house in tolerance condition but Pawn brokers and the Gin shop."
In his painting, Hogarth emphasizes on the condition of London at its worst. He made the painting with a broad humor that marks the best social satire. He wanted his painting to influence public's behavior. In Gin Lane painting, it shows how people were losing their senses. In this painting you could see the poverty, misery, madness that people were going through. The Satire of Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift was the most famous satirist of the English Enlightenment times. In eighteenth century, Swift was named Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin in1713. It was there where he wrote one of his famous works named Gulliver's Travels in 1726. In this book, Swift wrote about the traveling adventure of Lemuel Gulliver who meets miniature people, giants, and other creature.
This book was best selling book, it's first print was sold out within a week.
Universal read. Literacy and the New Print Culture. By 1750, Literacy rates increased so much that 60% of the men and 40% to 50% women knew how read.
Merchant class was more likely to read than working class. Even poor people had enough to purchase Milton's book.
Libraries did exist but the poor could not pay the annul fees. The rise of English Novel Works today that are called novels were rarely called novels back in 18th century.
The novels were typically were called "histories, adventure, tales".
Overall, novels were entertaining. It was healthier addiction than drinking gin.
Samuel Richardson was a printer and also the author of "A Father to a Daughter in Service, on Hearing of her Master's attempting her Virtue" and "The Daughter's Answer"
He also wrote "Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded" in about 2 months.
It was the first example of epistolary novel (it is novel that is made up of a series of epistles or letters). Started with Louis XIV opening in his private apartments in Versailles
After his death they continued their gatherings at hotels "Paris townhouses"
Hotels: Salon: room designed especially for social gatherings The Enlightenment in France Salon de la Princesse Designed by Germain Buffrand
It was made for 80 year old prince of Soubise and 19 year old Marie-Sophie-de-Courcillon
Top of room are 8 large paintings depicting the story of Cupid and Psyche (Charles Joseph Natoire) Influential thinkers
Visited Salons very often
Dominated intellectual thinker of French Enlightenment: A movement that emphasized reason & rationability and sought to develop a systematic understanding of divine and natural law
Their attention was focused more on social concerns
Almost all committed to the abolition of the monarchy Philosophes "Philosophers" WORK CITED http://www.paradiselost.org/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradise_Lost Aspired to establish new social order of superior moral & ethical quality
Often collide in salons
Nobility appreciated more an elaborate decoration & ornament
Philosophes hated ornamentation and wanted order, regularity & balance of Classical tradition Philosophes v French Courtier French artistic style
Best know for culmination of development in arts & architecture
Began with Michelangelo and cont. through Mannerism & Baroque
Jean-Antoine-Watteau was the best Rococo artist
Little known throughout his lifetime
Best known for Fetes Gallants; extension of amorous, celebrations or partied enjoyed by an elite group in a pastoral or garden setting
The Embarkation from Cythera The Rococo Copied painting of Watteau to be available to the public
Became master of Fetes Gallantes
Many of his painting are of Madame de Pompadar
Portrays her as an intellectual supporter of French Enlightenment Francois Boucher Jean Honore Frangonard Boucher student
Most important commission: four paintings for Marie-Jeanne Becu
The Swing: most famous painting
"It implies aesthetic intrigue between the artist & the patron, a conspiracy emphasized by the sculpture of Cupid to the left, holding his finger to his mouth as if to affirm the secrecy of the affair"
Composition very similar to the central panel of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, the creation of Adam "Serpentine meanders...with many twinings & windings
Pliny's inspirational description of Roman Garden
Ideal estate was to be "thrown open" in its entirely to become a vast garden
Henry Flitcroft and Henry Hoare, Park at Stourhead Wiltshire, England
Looks over an artificial ruin that tells the story of Aeneas's visit to the underworld
Miniature Pantheon (Claude Lorrain)
Embodied Parisian Salon
"A space in which to escape emotionally from the very civilization that Classical architecture symbolized The English Garden Achievement of Philosophes
Louis XV banned its printing twice due to "irreparable damage to morality & religion"
Subtitled Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Trades
Over 180 writers
"Change general way of thinking
Freedom of thought was fundamental to the transmission of knowledge and any state that suppressed it was considered an obstacle to progress
Represents principle of Enlightenment The Encyclopedie Believed in Enlightenment monarchy but used satire toward the kings
Imprisoned at Bastille then was sent on exile to London
Published Philosophical Letters criticizing French monarchy as a tyrannical
Later published Le Siecle de Louis XIV (The Century of Louis XIV)
Candide (Optimism) most famous work
"...tend to the small things that we can do well & leave the world at large to keep on its incomponent, evil and even horrific way" Voltaire & French Satire continued "Accumulate, codify & preserve human knowledge"
Rational Humanism ( Principle Guidance) belief that through logical, careful thought, progress is inevitable Jean Jacques Rousseau & Social Contract Describes an ideal state of governed by a somewhat mystical of the people that delegates authority to the organ of gov't as it deems necessary Art Criticism & Theory Denis Diderot essays considered first art criticism
Rococo: "convey false manners"
"to move,educate, improve us and to induce and virtue us.
Jeane Chardin captured his imagination "such magic leaves on amazed" The Brioche (the dessert) •Captain James Cook set sail from Plymouth, England on the British ship the Endeavor on August 26, 1768
•He was sponsored by both the Royal Society, and the British Admiralty
•His missions were believed to support the Enlightenment:
- Extend human knowledge
-Claim new territories for the British crown
-To map the Southern Seas
-Classify a vast area of the world that was unknown to the European civilization.
•The second, and debatably, Cook’s most important mission was to Tahiti. He was tasked with charting the Transit of Venus (the moment that Venus crosses directly between the Sun and the Earth)
-This was instrumental in learning to calculate the size of the solar system
-Occurs twice, eight years apart, every 243 years.
-In the 18th century it occurred in 1761 & 1769, also in June 2004 and June 2012 Cross Cultural Contact Captain James Cook The South Pacific •The Royal Society had knowledge of Tahiti due to Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), he had landed on the shore just a few months before the Endeavor set sail.
-Bougainville published a book (Voyage around the World) in 1771 that described the Tahitian life. This captured the Enlightenment’s imagination.
•Denis Detroit penned a Supplement in response to de Bougainville’s book:
-Detroit argued that the natives of Tahiti were truly Rousseau’s ‘noble savages.’
-The Tahitian people were free from the tyrannical clutches of social hierarchy and private property.
-No king, no magistrate, no priest, no laws, no ‘mine’ and ‘thine.’
-All things were held for the common good, including the island’s women.
•Tahitians, by following their natural instincts they had not fallen into a state of degradation and depravity, as Christian thinkers would have predicted, but rather they formed into a nation of gentleness, general well-being, and harmonious tranquility.
•Enlightenment philosophers had argued that human behavior was the same all over the world, and the Tahitians proved this point. •Unlike the cultures of the South Pacific, China & India were well known to the Europeans.
•The Philosophes were especially attracted to China. Due to the advancement of the society. It was the most complex of the West:
-China’s education, industry and commerce were highly developed.
-More male centered egalitarian society. China & Europe China's Influence on Rococo Art Blue on white porcelain was come to be known as china. The Rococo court painter Francois Boucher, imitated h blue-on-white technique or style in oil paint. Commerce:
-The first Portuguese trading vessels arrived in China in 1514; by 1715 every major European nation had an office in China.
-Carved ivory fans, boxes
•These goods flooded the European markets; which created a widespread taste for the “chinoiserie.”
•Central to the rise of chinoiserie was the Dutch-dominated tea trade.
•The craze for Chinoiserie even reached the English garden. William Marlow, View of the Wilderness at Kew, 1763
Sir William Chambers(1726-1796) designed a Chinese pagoda in London’s Kew Gardens.
Chambers visited China in the 1740s, and his work on garden architecture was published in 1762.
Dissertation on Oriental Gardening. This book was very influential due to the development of the French craze of the 18th century. Francois Boucher, Le Chinois galant, 1742 Cont. One of the first great novels written in English is
Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (published in 1719).
"The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by Pirates."
"Crusoe represents hope and possibility." Sayre, Henry M. Discovering the Humanities . Second. New Jersy: Pearson, 2010. 345-375. Print.