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Chapter 3: Early Civilizations in India and China Summary w/
Transcript of Chapter 3: Early Civilizations in India and China Summary w/
Section 1: Cities of the Indus Valley
The Indus Valley is located in the region known as south Asia or the subcontinent of India.
Today, as in the past, a defining feature of Indian life is the monsoons, a seasonal wind.
Farming and Trade
Most Indus Valley people were farmers.They grew a wide variety of crops, including wheat, barely, melons, and dates.
Section 2: Kingdoms of the Ganges
The Aryans were like warlike people.
A subcontinent is a large landmass that juts out from a continent
Three regions: They are the well-watered northern plain, the dry triangular Deccan plateau, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan.
The norther plain lies just south of the mountains.
The fertile region is watered by the mighty rivers : the Indus, which gives India its name, the Ganges, and Brahmaputra.
The Indian name for river is lok-mata, or "mother of the people"
During the month of October, a flow of hot, dry air that withers crops.
In late May or early June, the wet summer monsoons blows from the southwest.
The monsoon has shaped Indian life. If the rains are late, famine and starvation may occur
The two main cities are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals.
They both were large and three miles in circumference.
Each was dominated by massive hilltop structure, probably a fortress or temple.
Some people ere merchants and traders. Their ships carried cargoes of cotton cloth, grain, copper,pearls, and ivory combs to distant lands.
Indus people apparently worshiped sacred animals, including the bull.
They destroyed and looted the cities of the Indus Valley became the builders of a new Indian civilization
The Vedic Age
The Aryans were among many groups of Indo-European people who migrated across europe and Asia seeking water and pasture for their horses and cattle.
The early Aryans built no cities and left statues or stone seals. Most of what we know about them comes from the Vedas
The three basic groups were the Brahmins or priests, Kshatriyas or warriors, and Vasisya or herders, farmers , artisans, and merchants.
The Aryans therefore separated non-Aryans into a fourth group , the Sudras. This group included farmworkers, servants, and other laborers who occupied the lowest level of society.
Section 3 : Early Civilization in China
Geography: The Middle Kingdom
The ancient Chinese called their land Zhongguo, the Middle Kingdom
To the west and southwest of china, high mountains - the Tien Shan and the Himalayas - and brutal deserts blocked the easy movement of people.
"River of Sorrows"
The need to control the river through large water projects probably led to the rise of a strong central goverment.
Chinese history began in the Huang He Valley, where Neolithic people learned to farm.
System of Writing
The ancient Chinese developed a system of writing. It used both pictographs and ideographs, signs that expressed thoughts or ideas.
The oldest examples of Chinese writing are on oracle bones, used by priest to predict the future