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World War 1

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Cedric Schmitz

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of World War 1

Used Gotha Raids
Late 1916, offensive daylight bombing
During time, Britain managed to deal with zeppelins

World War 1
Warfare Technology and Strategy
Aerial Warfare in World War 1
Trench Warfare
Weapon types:
The Plan: Türkenkreuz (late 1916)
Called Gotha Raids
Plane was called: Gotha G. IV
German daylight bombing
Britain succeeded dealing with Zeppelin bombing
Britain was long term target for Germany
The plan before: Tip and Run
killed 25 people
The use of Trenches in warfare was employed during WW1 extensively on the Western Front. The armies dug interlocking trenches that eventually created a deadlock between the Allies and the Central powers which eventually led to the armistice.
First World War dramatically changed the future of the airplane.
First Airplanes were slow, fragile and had a weak engine.
- http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/external/worldwar1somme-tl.jpg
- http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwari/a/Trenches-In-World-War-I.htm
- http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww1/section5.rhtml
- "World War 1 in Colour" - Narrated by Kenneth Branagh - (c) 2003
- Images are taken from search results given by Google Images - (c) Google inc.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_strategic_bombing_during_World_War_I
- http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/plans.htm
Even before the war, hot air balloons were used in aerial reconnaisance.
Many war strategists saw great potential in the airplane as a spy tool.
This was easily solved with the development of the airplane.
Since airplanes became crucial in the war, so did the need to bring them down.
This meant the birth of the fighter plane...
But Machine Guns were hard to handle in the air.
Firing Forward could harm the propeller.
Firing sideways decreased accuracy.
Armed forces soon began gathering pilots.
Pilots would often be sent into battle with as little as 5 hours flight experience.
Average life span of a pilot in the war was eleven days.

Machine gun
A weapon built to protect trenches, not to launch an assault
The flamethrower was either filled with nitrogen or petrol.
It could shoot up to 18 metres
Very risky unit of the army
Olden day sniper
only carry able long ranged weapon
Bad for open field combat
But the war in the air did not
stop there...
Small rifle with a knife attached to the front
Good for close combat
Germany and England were both facing the problem of reaching their countries, due to the great distance between them.
The solution: Aircraft Carriers
Stationary gun
Needed a crew of 4 to 6 people to use it
It was not portable
it shot twice as far
Designed to defend trenches
Meanwhile: First civilian bombing in history in English civilian territory.
19th January,1915, first civilian bombing
-Four deaths, 16 injured
19 bombings followed, dropping 37 tons of bombs, killing 181 people and injuring 455.
This was the final development in aerial warfare, during the First World War, ending the horrifying effort for the victory in the air.
One of the most important weapon in the fist world war
they were the main weapons that were used to attack enemy trenches
Were detonated by a pin which was pulled out of the handle to light the fuse
Trench mortar
A weapon useful only for trench warfare
Shot projectiles that were a mixture grenades and rockets
Was fired at a 45°- 90° angle straight into the enemy trench
The first army to use gas was the french, although the germans put much more work into the development of chemical weapons
Pepper gas: This gas blinded soldiers and made them cough and choke. But most of the time it wasnt deadly, it just stunned them.

Mustard gas: This gas was very hard to detect, and once soldiers realized they were being gassed, it was too late. However, it took a while to work. It Blistered and burned the skin, causing imense pain.
Types of Gases used in the first world war
Phosgene gas: Suffocated you and you wouldn't even know it, but again, it took a while to work.

Chlorine Gas: This was perhaps the scariest. A green cloud would surround the soldiers and the fatal effects took place immediatly. Chlorine gas has the affect that it melts the lung, making the soldiers that were effected by it cough up blood and small chunks of the lung itself.
The effect of mustard gas
The first trenches had been dug by the Germans
during the First Battle of the Marne so that they would not lose any more ground when they were forced back by the british. Soon the allies did this too.
Soon neither armies could advance their positions, due to the high evolved weaponry of the twentieth century, creating a stalemate between the armies.
First trenches resembled ditches, intended for a short crossfire, but as the stalemate continued, more elaborate systems were needed. By the end of 1914, trench systems stretched 475 miles.
Trench routines varied depending on
nationality, different regions and platoons,
but the life in the trenches everywhere resembled that of a living nightmare.
By November 18, 1918, 8.5 million men had lost their lives in trench warfare. Alone thousands suffering from Shell Shock or latter effects of gas attacks.
Name of a "scheme of mobilization and concentration"
Adopted by the French General Staff Joffre in 1913
Unlike other plans, it was a plan of concentration
Did not include a fixed military strategy
Remained flexible to permit an offensive into Belgium or Lorraine
Germany declared war in 1914, France began the execution of Plan XVII with five initiatives
Now known as "the Battle of the Frontiers":
Battle of Mulhouse - (7–10 August 1914)
Battle of Lorraine - (14–25 August 1914)
Battle of the Ardennes - (21–23 August 1914)
Battle of Charleroi - (21- August 1914)
Battle of Mons - (23–4 August 1914)
British did not have a war strategy in the same sense as France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia.
Unlike these powers, had no particular desire for war to break out
Had no plans for expansion
She was keen to protect her interests
Particularly her trading links with her allies
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