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Game Design - Lecture2 - A Breif History of Video Games
Transcript of Game Design - Lecture2 - A Breif History of Video Games
The earliest known interactive electronic game by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, The patent was filed on January 25, 1947 and issued on December 14, 1948. The game was a missile simulator inspired by radar displays from World War II. It used analog circuitry, not digital.
The player would sit or stand facing a video screen mounted in a cabinet. The screen depicted a simulation of a radar display, with the airplanes and other targets painted onto a transparent overlay, typically paper since graphics could not be drawn at the time. The player then used a control knob to position the CRT beam on the screen, depicted as a dot and simulating a missile. He had to maneuver the dot to overlap a given target, then fire at the target by pressing a button. This all had to be done within a time limit. If the target is hit, the beam defocuses, simulating an explosion. The circuits could be altered to make targeting more difficult.
First Video Games
Lecturer Zaid Bawab
There are numerous debates over who created the "first video game"
In 1961, MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen created the game Spacewar! on a DEC PDP-1 mini-computer which also used a vector display system.
A Brief History of Video Games
Alan Turing, a British mathematician, developed a theoretical computer chess program as an example of machine intelligence. In 1947, Turing wrote the theory for a program to play chess. His colleague Dietrich Prinz wrote the first limited program of chess for Manchester University's Ferranti Mark I. The program was not powerful enough to play a full game. Input and output were offline, there was no "video" involved.
1947 - 1958
On May 5, 1951, the NIMROD computer, created by Ferranti, was presented at the Festival of Britain. Using a panel of lights for its display, it was designed exclusively to play the game of Nim; this was the first instance of a digital computer designed specifically to play a game. The machine weighed over a ton.
Strachey's Draughts Program
Christopher Strachey developed a simulation of the game draughts for the Pilot ACE (automatic computing engine) that ran for the first time on 30 July 1951 at NPL (National Physical Laboratory)
OXO / Noughts and Crosses
n 1952, Alexander S. Douglas made the first computer game to use an electronic graphical display. OXO, also known as Noughts and Crosses, is a version of tic-tac-toe for the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) computer at the University of Cambridge. It was designed for the world's first stored-program computer, and used a rotary telephone controller for game control.
Tennis for Two
In 1958, William Higinbotham made an interactive computer game named Tennis for Two for the Brookhaven National Laboratory's annual visitor's day.
Mouse in the Maze, Tic-Tac-Toe
In 1957–1961, a collection of interactive graphical programs were created on the TX-0 experimental computer at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). These included Mouse in the Maze and Tic-Tac-Toe. Mouse in the Maze allowed users to use a light pen to place maze walls, dots that represented bits of cheese, and (in some versions) glasses of martini. A virtual mouse represented by a dot was then released and would traverse the maze to find the objects. Tic-Tac-Toe used the light pen as well to play a simple game of noughts and crosses against the computer.
In 1966, Ralph Baer resumed work on an initial idea he had in 1951 to make an interactive game on a television set. In May 1967, Baer and an associate created the first game to use a television set; it was also the first video gaming device to be displayed in a television commercial. The "Brown Box", the last prototype of seven, was released in May 1972 by Magnavox under the name Odyssey. It was the first home video game console.
In 1971, Bill Pitts and Hugh Tuck developed the first coin-operated computer game, Galaxy Game, at Stanford University; only one unit was ever built (although it was later adapted to run up to eight games at once).
Computer Space (1971)
Two months after Galaxy Game's installation, Computer Space by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney was released, which was the first coin-operated video game to be commercially sold (and the first widely available video game of any kind).
Pong, also by Bushnell and Dabney, used the same television set design as Computer Space, and was not released until 1972 – a year after Computer Space. It was the first successful arcade video game and led to the popularization of the medium.