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Rock Layers of Time

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penelope mendelevium

on 17 December 2015

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Transcript of Rock Layers of Time

Cambrian
541-485.4 MYA
Lasted 56.6 MY
Age of Invertebrates
Climate was warmer than today
Atmosphere had more carbon dioxide than oxygen
Glaciers trapped ocean water and sea levels dropped and organisms in shallow waters dried out. Organisms who could not tolerate water died
Some plants and animals were Sponges, Water Scorpions, Seaweed , Brachiopods, Bryozoa, Eocrinoidea, starfish, and brittle stars
The rocks are grayish-green due to algae
Rock type is sedimentary

Ordovician
485.4-443.8 MYA
41.6 MY long
Age of invertebrates
Climate was cold, many glaciers, got warmer, ended with cool glaciers
Atmosphere had high CO2 100-2300 ppm
Mass extinctions beginning of the period was most likely the biggest extinction but not documented well, end extinction 60% of marine life was extinct 85% of all Ordovician species went extinct
Some plants and animals were Jaw less Fish, Nautiloids, Water Centipedes, Liverworts, coral, moss, tube-like ferns, and trilobites
The rocks are grayish-brown due to Carbonate hard grounds
The rock type is sedimentary
650-543 MYA
Lasted 107 MY
Age of soft bodied fauna
Beginning glacial period, end glaciers melted, humid
Atmosphere was made of hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfied, nitrogen, water vapor
Mass extinctions happened at the end, the only survivors were bacteria, platysdenides and themaptilion
Some animals are Dickinsonia, Arkarua, Charnia, Kimberella, Eorporpita, Spriggina, Tribrachidium, and Nemiana
The rocks are a yellowish-white color and it's because of limo nite
The rock type is sedimentary
Rock Layers of Time

By: Woody, Arnabh, and Lucas

Vendian
Silurian
443.8-419.2 MYA
Lasted 24.6 MY
Age of fishes
Climate was warm, glaciers melted, sea rose, northern hemisphere had a uniform climate, and southern hemisphere had seasons
Atmosphere had high CO2 levels
Mass extinction 26% of marine animals died, also radiation events
Some plants and animals include Cooksonia, Graptolites, Corals, Stromatoporoids, fungi, Zosterophyllum, and lepidodendron
Rock color was yellowish-brown because of gypsum, dolomite, and anhydrite
Rock type is sedimentary
416-358 MYA
Lasted 58 MY
Age of fishes
Climate had high levels of Co2 and low levels of O making the period very hot
Atmosphere consisted of mainly of CO2 but then plant life flourished so large amounts of O went to the atmosphere
The Killwasser event killed great coral reefs, the jaw less fishes, and trilobites. The Hangeberg event killed the Placoderms and early ammonites
Some plants and animals are Ferns, Horsetails, Lysophytes, Trilobites, brachiopods, archaeopteris, tabulate, and horn corals
The rocks are reddish-brown because they are muav limestone
The rock type is sedimentary
Mississippian
358.9-323.2MYA
35.7 MY
Age of amphibians
Tropical climate in the beginning, ended with cool temperatures and ice age
Atmosphere was O2 rich, age of oxygen
Mass extinction rain forest collapse
Some plants and animals include Crinoids, Ferns, Mollusks, Bryozoa, neuropteris, lepidodendron, amphibious lyelli, and arthropleurida
The rock color is grayish-reddish because of red wall limestone
The rock type is sedimentary
Pennsylvanian
320-286 MYA
34 MY
Age of amphibians
Climate ice age with polar regions, equator was tropical and subtropics were seasonally dry
Atmosphere, O2 was 20% of today's levels
Mass extinction armored fishes and plants died
Some plants and animals include armored fish, diplovertebron, Alethopteris, Hylonomus, paleodictyopterans, horsetail, reeds, and ferns
The rock color is a burnt orange because of the supai group
The rock type is sedimentary
Permian
299-251 MYA
Lasted 48 MY
Age of amphibians
Rapid cooling then temperatures raised, ended hot
There was lots of CO2 little O and not much water vapor in atmosphere
The Great Dying caused by Siberian Traps erupting killed 90% of marine species and 70% land species
Some plants and animals include Lycopods, Sphenopsids, Ammonoids, Corals, gymnosperms, therapsids, ginkgos, glossopteris
The rock color is an orange-brown because of hermit shale
The rock type is sedimentary
Triassic
248-206MYA
Lasted 42 MY
Age of reptiles
Was hot and dry, exaggerated seasons
High Co2 5x the current level
Started with great dying, ended with climate change
Some plants and animals include therapsids, archosaurs, glossopteris, and horsetails, hindeodus, encrinidae, cycads and evergreens.
Triassic rocks consisted of Navajo sandstone that are orange-brown due to iron oxide.
The rock is sedimentary
201.3-145 MYA
56.3 MY
Age of reptiles
Climate was warm and moist
Atmosphere had 5x more CO2 than in present day earth
Several species died out but not as violent as beginning, no one knows why
Some plants and animals are Alosaurus, stegosaurus and archaeopteryx, apatosaurus, ginkgoes, club mosses, ferns, and conifers
Rocks were Navajo sand and dead coral, was iron oxide rich
Rock was sedimentary
Cretaceous
145.5-65.5 MYA
Lasted 80 MY
Age of reptiles
Global warming made the period hot (obviously) then it cooled
Atmosphere had the same levels of O as today and there was high levels of Co2
The most notable extinction was the K-T extinction
Plants and animals were ferns, reeds, pine cones, and magnolia. Tyrannosaurs Rex, spinosaurus, brachiosaurs, and iguanadon
Tropic shale,sedimentary, brown due to clay
Tertiary
66-2.6 MYA
It lasted 63.4 MY
Age of mammals
Climate was very warm compared to today's weather, temperature cooled because of an ice age
Atmosphere, since asteroid hit earth lots of Co2 in beginning and cleared over time
KT extinction at the beginning and after that an ice age took place and began.
Some plants and animals were moose,bronitarys,giant sloths,saber tooth cats. sycamores,juniper,grass,spruce grass.
Rock was Wasatch fin and it is gray-red due to iron oxide and a fine quarts and clay mix.
Quaternary
2.6 MYA- to present day
It is right now 2.6 MY
Age of mammals
Climate has glacier expansions, considered an ice age because we have polar ice caps
Atmosphere 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases
100s of species disappeared transition of last glaciation, dramatic changes of vegetation, we are entering the 6th mass extinction
Some animals are homo-sapiens, wooly mammoths, water bears, and pigeons
Some plants are grass, bonsai trees, baobab, and acacia trees
The rock color is gray due to quartz crystals
The rock type is sedimentary
Living Fossil
The Cambrian jellyfish on the left is related to the jellyfish on the right
Always lived in the ocean, in surfaces of large bodies of water
They eat whatever they come across, and shove it through a little hole in the bottom of the jellyfish
Mississippian Jellyfish
This is an artists depiction of
a Mississippian jellyfish.
always lived in the ocean, in surfaces of large bodies of water
They eat whatever they come across, and shove it through a little hole in the bottom of the jellyfish
Slowly they evolved to actually see and got smaller to avoid predators such as other jellyfish and sharks
Cretaceous Jellyfish
These are pictures of cretaceous jellyfish with their fossils
Jellyfish at this time were very fast and small and their habitat was everywhere in the ocean deep, surface, warm, and cold
They ate other jellyfish, fish, and much more things they come across whole and bring it through a small hole they have
They evolved better digestive and nervous systems
Quaternary Jellyfish
This is a jellyfish that is present today
Jellyfish today have very good sight and could dodge things easily
Jellyfish first sting their prey and then eat it up either paralyzing or killing the prey
They lived in oceans all over the world
Hoatzin
this is a hoatzin from the late
Eocene which is in the middle of the tertiary.
it ate leaves and sometimes small bugs
it has a stomach that is similar to the rumen of a cow
it lived on pangaea in france, Brazil, and Spain
early quaternary hoatzin
this is the the quaternary hoatzin it lives in Brazil, France and Peru it eats leaves and tree bark. hatchlings can swim underwater to avoid capture

today's hoatzin
this is a hoatzin today,
it eats only leaves and lives only in Brazil and Peru, is the only bird alive to have its special digestive system
hoatzin baby
Sponges
Sponges have been around for 3,000,000 yrs. and have intresting life-styles. Back then they lived on the bottom of the ocean and could be found all over the world. High quality sponges lived in the Med., Argean, and Red Seas. Now, 99% live in saltwater and a small number live in freshwaters.
Devonian
Jurassic
Here is a sponge
Sponges Again
Sponges usually eat whatever goes through their pores such as plankton. Some special sponges are carnivorous (they eat meat). Using spikes on their bodies, they can incapacitate a fish for example and absorb it using its own cells!
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