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Drones 101

By Lydia Bates
by

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Drones 101

Drones: Warfare and Surveillance
International Humanitarian Law vs. Human Rights Law
International humanitarian law governs conduct during armed conflict. It aims to prevent human suffering while providing room for military necessity. It consists of the Geneva Conventions, Hague Conventions, successive treaties (jus in bello) and customary international law (jus cogens).
Types of Strikes
~Personality
~Signature
~Double Tap
~Just in Case
CIA vs. Department of Defense
The United States is currently conducting two separate drone operations:
~ DoD - Joint Special Operations
Command

- Afghanistan, Yemen, Somalia
- operate under Title 10

~ CIA

- Pakistan and elsewhere
- Title 50 covert
operations

Drone Types:
Predator
-First used for
reconnaissance in
Vietnam War
-Middle altitude, long
endurance
-2 Hellfire Missiles
-laser designator

Reaper
-High Altitude, long
endurance
-4 Hellfire Missiles
and 2 heavy weight
bombs
-Thermal Camera
-Nine times more
horsepower than
Predator
UN Charter
Human rights law regulates ordinary life on domestic, regional and international levels. It is made up of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as many other international and regional treaties.
Drones in Afghanistan
The Geneva Conventions
International Humanitarian Law
~4 conventions protecting:
I: sick and wounded
in the field
II: shipwrecked
members of the
armed forces
III: prisoners of war
IV: civilians

Three Additional
Protocols protecting
victims of international
and non-international
conflicts

International Human Rights Law
Ethical Questions?
-Not a Bug Splat/ human
face
-Changing conduct of war
-Spread of drone usage

Article 2 (4) of The United Nations Charter:
"All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state..."
International Covenants and Declarations
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Article 6: "Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life."
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 3: "Everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person."
Defense of Actions
Obama's use of Article 51 of the UN Charter
- attack on the state
-criminal actions, not state
actions
-UN Security Council and
state consent
Drones in Pakistan
Global Hawk
-First developed in 1995
-32 hours
-Synthetic Aperture Radar
-Electro-optical and infrared sensors
-psychological effect
History of Navigable Airspace
-..."from the depths to the
heavens"
-Air Commerce Act of 1926
and 1938 Civil
Aeronautics Act
-United States v. Causby

Current Navigable Airspace
Surveillance Technology
ScanEagle Drone
-4.5 ft long, 10 ft
wingspan
-19,500 ft aloft for
over 24 hours
-tested by
Houston Police
Department
Nano Hummingbird
-funded by DARPA
-6.3 inch wingspan
-100 yd range for
communication
Technology Continued
-High-powered zoom
lenses
-Night vision via infrared
and ultraviolet imaging
-Distributed video- large
swarm of drones
surveying a large area
-Congested area:
1,000 ft above
highest obstacle
within 2,000 ft
horizontal radius

-Non-congested area:
"500 feet above the
surface"
Fixed-Wing Aircrafts
Helicopters
May be operated outside zone of navigable airspace if done so "without hazard to person or property on the surface"
Domestic Uses
Safety Concerns
Privacy Concerns
-Customs and Border
-
Domestic law enforcement,
FBI, Drug Enforcement Admin.
-2011: Mesa County, CO police dept. allowed to operate drone anywhere in county
-Miami police testing drones over the everglades
-Hawaiian governor reviewing use of drones to survey harbors
nonlethal weapons such as teargas, Tasers and rubber pellets
Many argue that drones shouldn't be flown in National Air Space unless they can be certified at the same level as a manned aircrafts
Drones have an accident rate 7 times higher than general aviation and 353 times higher than commercial
Where We Currently Stand
Fourth Amendment: "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures..."
What to Expect
-30,000 drones
in next 20 years
-$89 billion in
next decade
-transparency/
slippery slope?
6 FAA Test Sites
Several factors defining unreasonable search:
- location of subject
- sophistication of technology
- duration of surveillance
Article 2 (4) of The United Nations Charter:
"All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state..."
UN Charter
Article 2 (4) of The United Nations Charter:
"All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state..."
UN Charter
Full transcript