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Transcript of COMPUTER SCIENCE
The binary code
A bit is the smallest unit used to represent information on a computer.
A bit can be either 0 or 1.
The components that compose a computer are:
the components of a computer that you can touch. For example: monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, internal circuits, the wiring...
all the programs and the operating system that make it possible to operate and use a computer.
It is the core program that tells the computer how to perform its basic funcions such as displying characters on the screen, printing information on a printer...
All the tools used to satisfy the common needs of the users.
It is the science that studies how to solve problems using "algorithms" through implementing them (programming) in machines called computers.
It is related to the representation, storage, mannipulation and presentation of information or data.
This information or data has to be traslated to a code ("process of encoding") before introducing it in a computer.
Computers processes input data to get output data.
ASCII code is an example of binary code.
It is used to represent all th characters used on computers.
Each symbol or letter is encoded by a group of 8 bits.
Binary to decimal
1. Divide the decimal number by 2 successively until the quotient is 1.
2. Put the remainders of the quotients in order from right to left.
Decimal to binary
1. Find the successive powers of 2, starting with 2^0, followed by 2^1, 2^2...
2. Multiply the 1 or the 0 in relation to that position.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
It is a chip that works as the computer's brain.
It interprets instructions from programs, processes data, manages and controls the entire system.
It is made of several electronic components that form circuits that are mounted on a silicon board. They are covered by a plastic shell and are connected with tiny metal pins.
It is also called microprocessor.
It is found in the motherboard.
The memory is where we store the data and instructions that form part of the programs.
ROM stands for Read Only Memory.
Its contents can only be read.
It stores the data that enables the computer to operate when we turn it on and lets the CPU communicate with other components.
It is not erased, even when we turn off the computer.
RAM stands for Random Access Memory.
It contents can be changed.
It's a read-write memory but it's erased when we turn off the computer.
It temporarily stores the programs and data that are being used on the computer.
Information is stored through the magnetic arrangement of particles on the device.
You can find:
Hard Drives: internal.
Portable Hard Drives: external.
Information is encoded by means of microscopic grooves on the surface.
Solid - State
They are small components called transistors.
Memory Sticks (Pendrive, flashdrive)
In this devices, information is stored indefinitely until the user deletes it.
They are used to communicate what is inside to the computer to the outside world.
They are conected to ports found on the computer's case.
To install them, you only have to connect them to a port (plug-and-play technology).
You can use wires to connect them or the devices can also be wireless.
They enable us to enter data and instructions into the computer from the outside.
They are used to get information from the computer after the data has been processed.
Displays images or text.
The size is measured by the diagonal width in inches.
The resolutions is the total number of points of light that make up the screen.
You can control te brightness, contrast, horizontal and vertical adjustment and other features through several buttons.
There are two types:
- Liquid crystal (LCD or TFT).
- Conventional (CRT).
They make possible to enter data on the computer and to output the information.
They allow you to retouch and edit images, free-form draw, resize, crop, create photo-montages, convert between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.
Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Gimp, iPhoto...
These programs make use of peripherial devices such as microphones, speakers or cameras to process text, images, sound, animation and video.
The Information In Our Computer
The data is stored as files.
To organized the files, we create folders and introduce files or more folders into them.
The folders and files are stored in the drives (hard drive, portable hard drives, CD's, DVD's, memory cards, pendrives...).
They enable us to write and format texts.
You can also personalize documents by changing their format (size and thickness of the letters, colour, margins...).
Microsoft Word, OpenOffice Writer, Pages...
It consist of cells arranged in rows and columns, where we enter the data and perform calculations.
You can also represent data using different types of graphs.
Microsoft Excel, OpenOffice Calc, Numbers...
You can use them to create attractive, animated or still slide presentations.
You have predefined designs you can use to enter text, objects, pictures... or you can create your own designs by yourself.
Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice Impress, Keynote...
It contains a series of tables that store information or data that are interrelated.
Tables are organized into rows (or records) and columns (or fields) like in the spreadsheets.
The main difference between spreadsheets and databases is that databases are design to hold large amounts of data. It allows you to organize different types of information so that it can be accessed, presented and entered quickly and easily.
Microsoft Access, OpenOffice Base, iDatabase...
Tools for processing graphics