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Indus River Valley

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Canaan Karr

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Indus River Valley

By: Sierra Jones
&
Canaan Karr THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY The Indus River Valley is fed by the Himalayan mountain snow run off, if the water is controlled, the land near the river can be used for farming.
The Indus River empties into the Arabian Sea, and the Ganges River empties into Indian Ocean.
South of both river valleys is the dry and mountainous Deccan Plateau.
Eastern and Western coasts of India are fertile plains.
The valleys receive monsoons, which are strong winds that blow in one direction during winter and in the opposite direction during the summer.
In the winter, the monsoons bring cold air, but in the summer it brings warm air and rains. Characteristics of the Indus River Valley The first civilization in the Valley started about 3000 B.C. and lasted about 1500 B.C.
When the summer monsoons came, the river rose higher, flooding the lands and creating fertile farming ground.
The farmers used the ground to grow more crops.
since they had extra food and supply, they spent their time making tools, houses, etc.
They traded their extra food and goods, causing their wealth to grow.
With greater wealth, they built larger cities.
At one point, there were more than 1000 villages and towns that trailed from Himalaya to the Arabian Sea.
2 major cities were Harappa and Mohenji Daro.
During this period, they had well planned cities for their time, with 35,000 people in one city. Advancements in The Valley Tall fortresses were built to keep guard of the cities.
The cities themselves had wide main streets, small side streets, and a wall that surrounded each neighborhood.
Most houses had a flat roof made with mud bricks.
Each house had a well to supply water.
They also had indoor bathrooms and garbage chutes.
The waste water flowed in drains underground, running all the way outside the walls of the city.
Most all of the houses had the same layout with a courtyard and many smaller rooms.
Houses usually had 1 or 2 stories. Advanced Housing For land transport, the Harappans used ox driven wagons with wooden wheels.
Mostly what they ate, caught, and grew was fish from the river, milk,vegetables, and various crops including wheat and barley. One of the most important crops was cotton. Pigs, sheep, goats, camels, buffalo, bull, and cow were domesticated to serve as a cultivation tool or used for food and other purposes. Agriculture Society of the Indus River Valley Indus River Valley Society Citizens were born into their social class and could not change it. There were several sections in the social ranks, including: Shudras (peasants), Vaishyas (farmers, artisans, and merchants), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), and Brahmins (priests and kings). People wore long hair and jewelry. Men worked within their designated area in the social system, while women were important mostly because of their ability to bare children and nurse.
When children were of age, they took their parents' role in society. It's right over in this general area Himalaya Deccan This is an Amazing Presentation about In between and Tools and Technology Most of their tools were constructed from bronze and maybe copper or iron. During this time, the Indus River Valley civilization developed a measurement system, the first and most precise of this time. Their weapons were also made from bronze, but were not as advanced as the Mesopotamian civilization. When it came to technology, they were the first in the world to develop measurements and weighing equipment. They also had large irrigation systems for most of their technology was used in agriculture. Religion and Writing Their religions included Hinduism from1,700 to1,100 B.C. and Buddhism in 365 B.C.. In literature, they wrote Vedas which is the oldest scripture of Hinduism. When it came to their actual writing, they wrote religious rituals, prayers, and hymns. S.J. S.J. S.J. S.J. S.J. S.J. S.J. Credits to: http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/indus.php
World History: Journey Across Time; The Early Ages pages: 195-201 JOBS The majority of the population would have been peasant farmers. They would make a living by growing enough food for themselves and selling the surplus. They would take their surplus food products to the cities to sell at market. Indus valley farmers grew wheat, barley, rice, msutard, sesame, dates, melons and cotton and they raised cattle, water buffaloes, sheep and pigs.

There would have been skilled artisans and craftsmen, builders, carpenters, metalworkers, leather workers, weavers, and of course potters, much beautiful pottery has been discovered in the Indus Valley. Women probably worked at some trades as well, spinning for instance is almost always a female occupation, and they may have been weavers and potters also.

Many people would have been employed as servants, anyone who could afford to keep a servant would probably have at least one, and wealthy people might have dozens.
Indus Valley cities had indoor plumbing, with drainage pipes, and there would probably be men employed to maintain the plumbing and sewage system of the cities. Government from archaeology, we can assume that the indus government was well organized, had powerful leaders (Priest-Kings), and that the government promoted skills in mathematics and surveying to lay out the cities so precisely.
From the information obtained through archaeology, the government in the Indus Valley was a monarchy.The Indus River Valley Civilization had a raja, or king, to rule. They had many kings that ruled different cities at various times. Indus Priests were also in charge of government and were rulers as well. The rulers governed through trade and religion, instead of military strength.
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