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Scientific Developments of the 1960s

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Mr Reid

on 12 May 2017

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Transcript of Scientific Developments of the 1960s

British Society 1918-1975
Social and Cultural Changes

Case study: What was 'White Heat'? (1963)
On 1st October 1963 Labour Party leader Harold Wilson made one of his most famous speeches at the Labour Party Conference.......

BBC news player - 3 minutes 38 seconds

Harold Wilson
So what is 'white heat'?
As the pace of change got faster - the 'white heat' of scientific progress manifested itself in a number of ways.
Technology - the future?
Science - took centre stage.
Business - fell over itself to develop new technology and satisfy consumer demand
Research - business invested in new research
1964 Wilson set up Ministry of Technology under Frank Cousins and Tony Benn
'Science' replaced the 'Arts and Classics' - end of the 'Establishment' !
On your way out of the room pick out an item from the 1960's shopping bag......Each item is a 'new' consumer product from the 1960's.
You have 15 minutes to research your product. We will be annotating the images with facts about the products from your research. Remember the research is about the 1960's - I don't need to know about the uses of cling-film in 2013!
Return to the classroom and add your product to the 'advert' wall.
In your files, take each product and annotate around with info from each others' research.
Stretch and Challenge - Add more of your own research.
Your task.....
In pairs - discuss the importance of all of these technological changes? Make a list of the changes they would bring.

would these products change people's daily lives? Finish for homework.
Why are these things important?
What new technology was being developed in the 1960's?
In what context were these changes happening?
A Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries.
The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment.
War always leads to technological and scientific advances.
Context -Vietnam War
A continuing state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies.
The Cold War was so named as it never featured direct military action, since both sides possessed nuclear weapons, and because their use would probably guarantee their mutual assured destruction.
The rivalry led to a rivalry in science and technology too.
Context -Cold War
What technology is being introduced?
First working laser demonstrated in May Hughes Research Lab
Halogen Lamp
Female birth pill
1960 Inventions
Non- dairy creamer
1961 Inventions
First Trans-Atlantic Satellite Broadcast via the Telstar Satellite
Space War! First computer game
Audio cassette
Felt (Fibre) tip pen
1962 Inventions
First geosychronous communications satellite, syncom a launched
Trans- Pacific satellite broadcast via relay 1 satellite
Touch-tone telephones
Sketch pad computer graphics
Video recorder
Video disk
1963 Inventions
Acrylic paint invented
Permanent-press fabric
Minicomputer, digital equipment corporations 12 bit PDP-8
Programming language 'basic' by John G. Kemeny and Tom Kurtz
1964 Inventions
Soft contact lenses
Compact disk by James Russell
Kevlar (bullet proof vests)
1965 Inventions
Electronic fuel injection for cars
1966 Inventions
PAL & SECAM broadcast color TV system starts publicly ( transmitting in Europe)
Automatic Teller Machine opened Barclay Bank, London
Hand held calculator
1967 Inventions
Computer mouse
Paper paradigm graphical user interface
1968 Inventions
Artificial Heart
Bar code scanner
DRAM ( Dynamic Random Access Memory)
1969 Inventions
How did technology affect the world?
Read through pages 33-37 in Waller
Complete the venn diagram to highlight the different 'discoveries' and how they impacted upon the world of work; leisure and daily life. Think about which developments would make a difference for more than one area or even all three?
New 1960'sTechnology
Context: 1918-1945; 1945-1954
What was 'white heat'?
In what ways did the Labour Party embrace technology and science?
What new consumer goods did technological changes allow people to buy?
Why are these changes important?
What was the effect of medical developments and the contraceptive pill? Fears?
Significance of the pill in promoting social change?
What effect did science and technology have on the daily lives of ordinary Britons?
Causes of social and cultural change.....Science & technology

Context - Space Race
A mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority.
The Space Race sparked unprecedented increases in spending on education and pure research, which accelerated scientific advancements and led to beneficial spin-off technologies.
What we will be learning....
The invention of the colour TV saw a huge expansion in mass communication and adverts for all the new products.......
Answer the questions on page 37 - the thinking point and two summary questions.
Start to create a scrapbook of recollections about life in the 60's from those who lived through it - parents/grandparents/neighbours/friends etc
Be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of oral evidence!
The Expansion of the Mass Media during the 60s

What do we mean by 'Mass Media'?

Why would this matter?

How was this exemplified?
How important is TV in your life on a 1-5 scale? (Hold up your hands!)
What role does TV serve?

What functions does it performs across the nation as a whole?
Number of TV licences:
1950 - 344,000
1955 - 4,504,000
1960 - 10,470,000
1965 - 13,253,000
1975 - 17,701,000
What changes would this lead to in the following aspects of life?
Home life
Social life
Traditional Print media
You have ten minutes in groups/pairs to discuss this and present back your findings to the class.

Home life - Ads, New products, leisure, hobbies, DIY, Family entertainment

Social life - Programmes to discuss, 'Magazine Programmes', sport, soaps, watching together

Sport - 'Economics of the game', reduced 'real' audiences, national spirit e.g. olympics, Wimbledon etc

Celebrity - Bringing in to the home, Massive increase in new identities, youth culture

Traditional Print media - Move from reporting to commenting, new glossy magazines colourful and celeb filled off the back of TV

Education - Children's TV, Open University, Travel and culture etc
Can you name any of
these gentlemen?

Can you guess what they
have in common?
Greg Dyke BBC DG 2000 - 2004
The Lord Hall of Birkenhead - Current DG
(60s as the end of The Establishment?!!)
Our Man at 'Aunty'!
Hugh Greene
Director General of the BBC 1960-69. Introduced subjects previously avoided e.g. satire, realistic police drama, sitcoms, controversial plays, nudity and offensive language.

So... what's so special about the BBC?
The BBC is generally considered by many to be the greatest broadcasting service in the world. It is unusual though in that it is 'State Funded' and operated by a Royal Charter and has a specific remit on what content it must broadcast.
So..... What changed at the BBC during the 60s and why does this matter?

Read pages 40-42 and answer these two questions.
Imagine this was your only form of media in the home...
Consider and list what implications this would have on your life.
Feedback - Same music, restrictions, no choice, no portability etc.

Remember the 1955 election broadcast?
Freedom and plenty vs Restrictions and Control!
Time for some 'What if' scenarios today!

What if there was no pop music being played on the radio?

How would you go about solving this problem?
What would the official repsonse be to this?
So what would happen next?

How do you think this panned out?
In 1954 the transistor radio was invented. Before this valve-radios were huge contraptions that people proudly had in their front rooms. After this the became portable and personal meaning teenagers no longer had to listen to their parents’ choice. The problem was that at the beginning of the 60s there were only 3 radio stations and none of them played pop music. In response to this pirate radio stations set up to fill the demand for modern music for the younger generation. The most famous example was ‘Radio Caroline’ which broadcast from a ship just off the British coast and so bypassed the broadcasting laws. These ventures were ended by the Marine Broadcasting Act in August 1967 which banned broadcasts from boats. The BBC responded however by launching radio 1 and employing some of the popular pirate DJs. It was not until 1973 that commercial radio stations were finally permitted with London’s Capital Radio being the first.
What if you ran a newspaper in 1959?
Prepare a mock report the board of directors outlining what you think will happen to the newspaper industry in the next ten years.

Explain what changes you anticipate and explain why you feel these will happen.
TV and Radio have moved in on your territory and now do all the reporting of news!
What will your newspaper do to react to this?

What are you choices for specialising in the newspaper market?
What actually happened?
Many feared the advent of TV would destroy the traditional print press and between 1960-1962 five national newspapers had to close. Those that remained, along with the newcomers such as ‘The Sun’ were either split in to tabloids or the broadsheets. The tabloids latched on to the new fascination with celebrity and looked for sensational stories, often paying for them, whilst even the broadsheets were prepared to report some celebrity stories and started including colour supplements and investigative stories. Many new magazines were published covering interests such as fashion and sport and were all colourful and strongly visual. Other titles such as ‘private eye’ poked fun at politicians and the establishment using satire to pass comment.
What if you ran an advertising agency in 1959?
What do you anticipate will happen in the next decade or so?

How will you ensure that you continue to make money?
What actually happened?
Advertising grew massively, particular spending on TV advertising. In total expenditure on advertising grew from £100million in 1951 to £2.5billion by 1978.

What effects do you think this had?
Using the classwork notes and discussion and the Waller textbook( p40-46); make a factfile explaining how each of the main forms of media changed during the 60s. You must have seperate headings and include TV, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines and Advertising mediums.
Context: Britain 1918-1945

Britain had been the first to Industrialise in the C18th-C19th.

WWI had tested Britain's Industrial capacity to its limits, e.g. Shell Shortage, 1915.

Structural decline in heavy industry apparent in the 1920s.

North/South split in the 1930s - aerospace and car manufacturing based in the South.

WWII Sci. & Tech. developments - Penicillin; jet engines; radar.
End of WWII - Attlee left-wing govt.; baby boom; consumer tech.

Post-war Austerity - rationing only ends in 1954!

Rise of the teenager

1954 - Consumerism starts, fueled by improving technology & credit
1930-1939 Inventions
1930 - frozen food process
1932 - polaroid photography
1933 - FM radio
1934 - Cat's eyes
1935 - canned beer
1937 - photocopier
1938 - ballpoint pen
1939 - first successful helicopter
Inventions 1918-1929
1918 - superheterodyne radio circuit (every modern radio & TV uses this!)
1919 - pop-up toaster
1921 - first robot
1925 - mechanical TV
1928 - electric shaver
1929 - car radio
1945 - 1954 inventions
1945 - atomic bomb
1946 - microwave oven
1948 - Frisbee & Velcro
1950 - first credit card
1952 - hydrogen bomb
1953 - transistor radio
1954 - oral contraceptives
Full transcript