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AP European History Dialectic
Transcript of AP European History Dialectic
48. Industrial Revolution
23. Changing Capitols
AP European History Dialectic
1. "Defender of the Faith"- Henry VIII of England
2. Henry VIII's Succession Problem
3. Reformation Iconoclasm
4. St. Bartholomews Massacre
5. Rhine River given to Dutch- Treaty of Westphalia
6. Individualism and Reformation
7. Rejection of The Divine Rights of Kings (1689)
8. Versailles Nationalism Importance
9. Louis XIV and natural barriers
10. Peter the Great Observing Modernity
11. Age of Reason
12. French Debt lead to Revolutionary ideas
13. Womens March To Versailles
14. Repressive Russian Policies from 1848
15. Nationalist and unified Germany
16. Social Darwinism
18. Great terror - Stalin
19. War exhaustion
20. Locarno Pact (1925)
21. Scientific Revolution
24. Balance of Power
25. Printing Press
27. Agricultural Revolution
30. Neolithic Revolution
31. Mesopotamia City States
32. Iliad and Odyssey
33. Classical Ideals
34. Alexander the Great
35. Rome surrounded by enemies
36. Roman Cities
37. Roman Capitol City
39. Soviet Victory at Stalingrad in WWII
40. Big 3 Reaffirming during the Cold War
41. Battle against Naziism
42. Contention and Divide of Germany
43. Greek Dramas
45. Execution of the Tsar and his Family
47. Storming of the Bastile
49. Nazi Symbol
50. Natives and conquistadors
German Leaders as Holy Roman Emperors
Henry's devout Catholicism during his early rule came from Henry detesting Martin Luther and calling Luther "a great limb of the Devil". Henry's Catholicism support allowed the pope to give Henry the title "Defender of the Faith". This influence of the pope is also seen by the title of Holy Roman Emperor. The king of Germany and Italy was officially called the full "Holly Roman Emperor" after crowing Fredrick I in 1157. The titles "Defender of the Faith" and "Holy Roman Emperor" show how closely tied absolute monarchs were to the Papacy.
Henry VIII did not have a male heir by his first wife, and was not expected to have a male heir. England would soon have a problem with succession after the death of Henry. The Austrian Succession had the same problem in 1740. Charles VI of Austria and the HRE died without a male heir. Maria Theresa was planning to take the role of succession under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.
The Reformation Iconoclasm was a time where protestants destroyed and removed Catholic religious images including churches and statues. Civil authorities removed most images, but riots also helped destroy statues and images. The Kristallnacht was an attack on jewish places of worship, homes, and businesses. This took place in Nazi Germany as well as Austria where non-jewish civilians and Nazi Authorities destroyed any jewish related buildings and relics. Both events focused on one religion in order to purify areas.
The St. Bartholomews Day Massacre was an event the killed many Huguenot aristocratic leaders. The Huguenots had gathered for the wedding of Henry III of Navarre and Catherine de'Medici. 5000-30000 french died from this massacre. The Massacre also killed the Huguenots chances for a political movement. Bloody Sunday occurred in 1905 where unarmed demonstrators were there to present a petition to the Tsar. The Tsar had the Imperial Guard shoot at these demonstrators. Bloody Sunday killed Russian support for the Tsar's regime.
Polish Corridor taken from Germany- Versailles Treaty
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) took the mouth of the Rhine River from Germany and gave this section of land to the Dutch. This harmed Germany's long term economy. This same kind of punishment was given to Germany by the Versailles Treaty after WWI. The polish corridor split up the previous east and west Prussia sections of Germany leaving Germany with very strong grudges. Germany fights for all this land to come back.
Individualism and the Reformation left people with a new found curiosity. People began to create their own goals and desires through a new found independence. The Reformation allowed many people to also question what they should follow. There were now numerous kinds of Christianity floating throughout Europe and this left individuals curious of whats beyond Europe. Those courageous and brave enough could now explore the new parts of the world with this new found individualism.
Revolutionary Ideas in France
England being a strong influence of Europe rejected the one tradition Europe seemed to have a hard time giving up. England rejected the divine rights of kings. England was also working on extremely limiting the monarchy and soon turning into a constitutional monarchy. The ideas that kings are not the only way to govern hit countries like France in 1789. France now knew that it could function under other forms of government similar to how England now worked under a constitutional monarchy.
Crowning of Kaiser in the Versailles Palace
The Versailles Palace has been a very important place for nationalist backlash between France and Germany. Versailles was first built to symbolize the power behind Louis XIV and also France's cultural dominance in Europe. William I was crowned German Emperor in the Versailles Palace in 1871. This occured during the Franco-Prussian war where the palace was again, used as a symbol to show how Prussia/Germany was much better then France. Lastly, The Versailles Treaty was signed in the palace to show Germany that they are not any more powerful then any other country. The treaty even humiliated Germany politically.
Hitler taking back German states
Louis XIV was a strong France king looking to expand his power. He wanted to take back all of the French land along the Rhine River and Switzerland. This same strategy is seen by Hitler in pre-WWII where Hitler's goal is to take back all German Speaking states. Both rulers were looking for nationalism.
Hitler's Appreciation towards Britain
Peter the Great was the first "Modern" Russian ruler who looked towards western Europe to help grow and expand Russia. Peter visited Holland and England to return to Russia with ways to mold Russia into a strong European Power. Hitler took this same route by observing Britain. Hitler adored the way Britain ran it's country and its colonies. Hitler enjoyed watching movies and even visiting the country. Hitler had hoped to ally with Britain.
The enlightenment and age of reason showed Europe many new ways countries can be governed politically and economically. Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, and Rousseau all had new ideas on education, economics, politics, and humanity. France was a major country who took the ideas from the enlightenment in order to find the purpose and power behind the revolution. People now realized that Absolute Monarchies are not the only solution to a government.
German debt leads to Nazi Regime
Debt easily leads a countries mind towards revolutionary ideas. France's debt under Louis XIV caused the people to see the large amounts of corruption in their government. The debt calls for an estates general where he third estate is left out of all decessions calling for a revolution caused by the third estate. This same thing happens to Germany between WW1 and WW2. Germany falls into massive amounts of debt under the republic which causes the country to fall back on the opposing political group to the republic, The Nazi regime.
Women's Day March in Russia
Both marches were fulled by extreme revolutionary stress where women are ultimately marching for food. The March to Versailles was on the demand of bread and they managed to capture the king. Women's Day March in Russia was focused on also receiving food.
Creates years of build up for WWI Russia
Russia's repressive policies made Russia look like a pretty facade, but internally began destroying Russia. With the build up of WWI and the policies, Russia could be seen collapsing on its self.
New Balance of Power
The combination of Prussia with Germany created a very scary combination of military and nationalist ideas. Power and force cause a strong upset with the natural balance of power all over Europe. Countries near the new Germany were now very scared of the amount of power this country held.
Social Darwinism was initially seen applied to humanity through the use of economics, but this idea of human natural selection was then applied to race and nations. The use of social darwinism as an excuse to exterminate races and groups of people such as jews, and homosexuals. This was the ideology used for the holocaust. Hitler saw social darwinism as a way to create his perfect german society.
Violent breaks for independence
The previous and constant strive for more land and territories around the world created many colonies. By now these colonies are their own country, but getting to that point was a very violent task. Two great examples are Vietnam and Korea. Vietnam was once a french colony and Korea was once a japanese colony. Both countries faced very violent civil wars based on strong divisions for their own government. Colonialism causes very violent independence.
Reign of Terror- French Revolution
The great terror was a campaign by Stalin (Russia) to eliminate Bolsheviks. Eventually the terror even included intellectuals, army officers, party members, and ordinary citizens. Stalin did this campaign similar to the French Republics Reign of Terror. During the Reign of Terror, anyone associated or supported the monarchy was killed. These campaigns were an easy way for a government to get rid of mass amounts of opposing party supporters.
Little desire for jumping into more wars.
War exhaustion has been seen throughout history and WWI and WWII are great examples. WWI saw a large lose of life due to the amount of weaponry provided from the advances from the industrial Revolution. Countries were holding back from stopping Hitler and starting another World War due to the losses from the first world war. Without war exhaustion, WWII would have been started much earlier.
Hitler Breaking Deals
Hitler not only broke the Versailles Treaty, but also broke the Locarno Pact which was an agreement between France and Germany where each country would respect eachother's borders. Germany/Hitler clearly broke this when he went into Paris during WWII
The scientific revolution brought along hard facts and findings about germs, motion, math, and the world around us. When the world is realizing where we actually get sick, why things fall to the ground, and even where earth exists in the universe people can now begin figuring out how everything should coexist. People were now seeing how they fit in the world and how we should all humanely interact.
This connection can be a very obvious one. Both Napoleon and Hitler were seeking and trying to finally receive their large world empires and both rulers did not fully succeed. Both rulers admired another state. Napoleon admire Rome and Hitler admired Britain. Both rulers also tried to expand their empires into Russia and failed due to Russia's use of their weather and land.
Leaders such as Peter the Great of Russia and Louis XIV have changed the capitols of their countries for nationalism. Peter the Great changed the capitol of Russia to St. Petersburg and Louis XIV changed France's capitol to Versailles. The changing of capitols is clear to the direction the king/Tsar wanted the country to direct their nationalism. Typicaly the capitol is changed in order to give the country a better sense of pride and focus.
30 years war
The 30 years war began as a war against religions then turned into a war of Bourbons vs Habsburgs. Without the care for the European balance of power the destructive and lengthy 30 years war would not have been as destructive and lengthy and instead would have stayed a religious war.
The printing press allowed for mass production of books. Books hold large amounts of knowledge and the bible was the most recreated book. The spreading of the bible spread literacy and now people could interpret the bible themselves, they then realized that the church was not completely trustworthy. Without the printing press mass production of bibles would not be able to spread to the followers of Catholicism.
Byzantium was a new empire that held all the ideals and even people of Rome into a new location. Byzantium kept Roman intellects, architecture, religion, and divine right to rule. Without the thriving Byzantium these Roman ideas would not pass on to the rest of Europe.
The agricultural revolution allowed the support of a larger population including larger city populations. Factories are located in larger cities and require a large amount of workers. With the support of city populations factories could have steady labor without worrying about large amounts of labor death.
Persia started as separate groups of nomadic people and ended up being a very strong empire spanning Asia minor. Unified Germany followed this same kind of combination. Germany started out as very independent states and then unified. Prussia soon unified with Germany becoming a very strong military and political power in Europe. Both empires show that the combination of like people helps a country strive.
Realism and Age of Reason
Philosophy is the study of fundamental problems and the age of reason uses these studies to apply these ideas to society and how society should work with governments. Realism is also discovered from people see things for what they really are. The discoveries of philosophy are applied during realism and the age of reason.
The Neolithic revolution had the first agricultural Revolution which jump started humanity into discovering new ways to efficiently get simple tasks done. Without the first use of stone tools and using systematic agriculture humanity wouldn't advance to using rotational crops or even building sophisticated weapons.
German City States
City States were originally used to easily communicate and govern an area without difficulty. Smaller city states also allow a closer knit group of people that are more similar. This same idea is used in ruling over original Germany. German City states kept economies prosperous and easier to control.
Romanticism focused solely on the basis of emotion in works. Emotions such as awe, horror, and apprehension were very popular. The Iliad and the Odyssey written around 700 BC focus a lot on emotions such as horror and awe. These ancient stories are a basis the much later romantic writers choose their stories to come from
The classical ideas focused a lot on portraying society just the way society looks. While Romanticism is a perfect spin off from classicalism that focuses more on the real human emotion. Both forms work on society instead of imaginative ideas or even nature.
Each of these titles are directly connected based on a supreme essence and success. Alexander the great and Cesar lived in closer times then the rest of the titles but the success of these first two rulers set a path for greatness for absolute rulers. Kaiser and Tsar both literally derive from the word Cesar show what those two titles are living up to. Napoleon was another great ruler that effected the way the kaisers and Tsars would rule. Each of these men would look at each others battles and accomplishments to repeat great successes.
France Surrounded by Enemies
Rome originally used some sort of balance of power to keep its surrounding enemies from attacking. Much later France faces this same problem and uses the same ideas as Rome, but instead decides to call this defensive idea, Balance of power. France also uses this idea and spreads it through out Europe, so every country wishes to keep this balance.
Local Roman city officials had to keep governments running by taking care of business such as tax and work. This same order was used in the middle ages for feudalism. People work for the land in order to live on the land. This can be called a version of taxation where the landholders control portions of land they hand out to peasants to work. Portions of the agriculture go to the country. This same idea was used for roman cities.
The Roman Capitol City was moved to Constantinople by Constantine in 324 AD. The move of the capitol was due to the falling Roman Empire and a need for a fresh new start to keep Roman ideas alive. Constantinople can be described as the Second Rome collecting its culture and architecture.
Constatine can be called one of the first absolute monarchs. Constatine ruled the "New Rome" alone and did this with his divine right to rule coming from the commandment of god. Constatine was a very strong christian ruler and saw his ruling as gods wish.
French Invasion of Russia
The Russian victory over France in 1812 and Germany in 1943 can be thanked due to the bad planning of the enemies, the Russian winters, and war of attrition. Both Napoleon and Hitler had their army's take detours in order to get to their destination which cost the army's time. The extra time added by both leaders pushed the wars further into the very harsh Russian winters where solidiers were not prepared. The Russians always used everything they had to break down the enemy. The Russians killed resources for the french and every Russian fought against the germans.
The Big 3 reaffirming after the cold war had Germany surrender, and had Germany pay Reparations set at $20 Billion. These same standards were seen in the Versailles Treaty after WWI. Germany seems to always get punished the same way.
Battle Against Communism
The battle against Naziism was very similar to the battle against communism. The Truman Doctrine set it up to where America helps countries who deserve their freedom. European countries were doing the same for countries being invaded by Germany. Those countries did not deserve to be stuck under an unfair government. Countries will try to protect others so humanity keeps their freedom.
The original divide of Germany and Prussia
When Germany split between The federal republic (west) and the German democratic (East) this divide put Germany almost back into its original divide between Germany and Prussia. The divide probably played off of the importance of old nationalism between the separate east and west.
The original greek dramas focused the division between tragedies and comedies which is the typical division of all Shakespeare writing. The basis of Shakespeare writing comes from the greek dramas written by Sophocles and Aristophares.
Arc de Triomph
The Parthenon was built to represent the victory of the Persian Empire. The arc de Triomph was built for the same purpose many years later for the Napoleonic victories for France.
Execution of Marie Antoinette and King Louis
During the Russian overthrow of the Tsarist Regime the Red army executed the Tsar's family in fear of a possible overthrow of the provisional government. This same act was done to Marie Antoinette during the French Revolution's Reign of Fear, in fear of the royal family taking back the monarchy.
Napoleon takes a lot of ideas from Rome. Napoleon calls himself the first consul which is a title directly from Rome. Napoleon also decides to rebuild France from brick to marble which was also previously done by Rome.
First Concentration camps
The storming of the bastile held the french noble men in a concentration camp like situation for days. This same thing happened in some of the first Germany concentration camps where german communists and other Nazi opposing parties were held.
The industrial revolution led to countries needing cheap raw resources. These countries could not find the resources on their homeland, so the need for colonialism was necessary for a very successful economy.
The Roman eagle was used as the symbol for the military legion where the Nazi's use the eagle for the same reason. This is another way the Nazi's are trying to bring back a Romanesque empire.
Natives and Nazis
The Natives in the new world gave conquistadors gifts and gold because they thought the conquistadors were there to save them. The natives also sometimes gave nazis food and gifts because they thought the nazis would save them. The nazis and conquistadors end up killing most of these natives that give them gifts.
AP European Crash Course book
Western Civilization Textbook