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Phases of the Cold War

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by

Fred Fox

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Phases of the Cold War

Intro to the Cold War A look at the unofficial phases of the 20th Century battle between two superpowers in a struggle for global supremacy. "Uncle Joe"
Stalin F
D
R Harry
Truman Nikita
Khrushchev Dwight D.
"Ike"
Eisenhower Leonid
Brezhnev Andropov C
h
e
r
n
e
k
o Mikhail
Gorbachev Boris
Yeltsin Lyndon B. Johnson L
B
J JFK Nixon F
o
r
d Carter Ronald
Reagan George HW Bush Wartime
Allies
1940-45 First
Cold War
1945-53 Fluctuating Relations
1954-68 Detente
1969-79 Second
Cold War
1979-85 Perestroika
1985-91 Common Enemy + Mutual Distrust Social & Political Differences "The Grand Alliance"? 1942-Stalin pressures the USA & Britain to open a second front on Germany. 1944 - The US and Britain finally invade France, giving Stalin the much needed relief. 1943 - Tehran Conference
"Percentages Agreement"

1945 - Yalta Conference
-Division of Germany
-Poland's Borders

1945 - Potsdam Conference
Truman & Attlee don't like Joe Post WWII-Europe is divided into two "camps": the Western Block and Soviet Block. A few nations remain unaligned. Truman signs NSC-68 on September 30, 1950.
The US Policy of "containment" becomes a national priority. The Cold War goes Global. 1949-Chinese Civil War
1950-Korean Conflict August 29, 1949
The Nuclear Arms Race Begins "The Thaw" 1955-Khrushchev promises "mutual coexistence" 1958-Khrushchev promises "We will bury you." 1952-President Eisenhower promises a "New Look" defense policy 1953-US adopts a policy of "Brinkmanship" designed to use the USA's nuclear superiority to force communist concessions. 1957-Soviets Launch Sputnik
and the Space Race begins 1960 U-2 Spy Plane shot down over USSR 1950 - Ho Chi Minh recognized by USSR and China as legitimate ruler of Vietnam 1964 - The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution January 1961-Castro takes control of Cuba
-Kennedy inaugurated US President
April 1961 - US Launches failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay
of Pigs 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis February 11, 1961
Patrice Lumumba Assassinated 1961 - Berlin Wall Built The Crises Mutual
Assured
Destruction -US Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara US "First Strike" Policy: Strategic
Arms
Limitation
Talks
(I AND II!) 1971 - People's Republic of China
officially joins the United Nations 1973-US ends its military
involvement in Vietnam.
1975-Fall of Saigon. Haile Selassie is overthrown
by a Marxist Coup in Ethiopia. 1974 US backed dictator of Nicaragua (Somoza)
is overthrown by the Sandinistas: a group
that contains many Marxists. -1979 I get no respect. 1979-USSR invades Afghanistan The US supports a
group of resistance fighters... ...the US funded "freedom fighters"
were called the mujaheddin.
They later become known as
The Taliban. 1980 - US Boycotts the Moscow Olympics
1984 - USSR Boycotts the LA Olympics 1983 - Reagan proposes
the Strategic Defense Initiative
AKA: "Star Wars" 1983 - President Reagan refers to the
Soviet Union as an "Evil Empire." Samantha Smith writes
Secretary Andropov a letter Gorbachev implements
Glasnost (openness)
and Perestroika
(restructuring) in USSR. Reagan and Gorbachev begin a series
of summits on topics unheard of since
Yalta and Potsdam (arms reductions,
spheres of influence, trade, peace...) May 1989 - Border between Hungary
and Austria is dismantled. 1989 - Suddenly, and as if "without warning":
Eastern European
Communism Collapses June 1989 - Solidarity wins a majority in
Poland's first free elections. September 1989 - East Germans begin escaping to West Germany via Austria October 1989 - Gorbachev visits East Germany to personally inform Honecker that the Soviet Union will not provide assistance to stop the mass demonstrations taking place in East Germany. November 1989 - Thousands of East Germans march to the Berlin Wall and demand to be let through. December 1989 - Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary all announce open borders and free elections March 1990 - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania declare independence from the USSR. December 1991:
The Soviet Union collapses East and West Berliners begin dismantling the wall. 1959 - During a visit to the US, due to security concerns, Khrushchev is denied a much hoped for visit to Disneyland. Aside from this diplomatic catastrophe, the trip is a big success. The Cold War is over. "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" Berlin 1987
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