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Animal Farm - Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Old Major's Speech

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Hannah McDonald

on 9 March 2018

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Transcript of Animal Farm - Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Old Major's Speech

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in Old Major's Speech
Ethos is based off of the character of the speaker. It is ethical appeal. People will listen if the speaker is a respectable person.
Pathos appeals to the emotions of the reader/listener. The speaker will get his point across more effectively if he can make a connection with the audience.
Logos is logical appeal. It uses information to back up ideas. Others would not be able to argue otherwise if a point is supported by strong facts.
Old Major: leader of the animals in George Orwell's Animal farm
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos are methods of persuasion invented by the Greek philospher Aristotle. Each of them use different appeals to try and persuade a listener into whatever the speaker wants them to think or do.
The crowd of animals he is speaking to clearly respects him.
Old major makes his audience feel a certain way to persuade them.
Old Major uses ethos again when he says "I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living." (Orwell 6) This sets Old Major up to be wise, which many of the animals believe him to be.
Again Old Major uses pathos when describing how the animals have lived under the watch of Mr. Jones. He speaks using "we" and "our." By doing this he expresses problems that are shared. This common ground is something he can then draw from to win the affection of his audience. He talks about problems that have plagued the farm animals for a long time, but Old Major was never majorly affected by them. He even takes note of this in his speech; calling himself "one of the lucky ones." This is quite odd because he was trying to call himself one of them even though he did not experience the same hardships.
Old Major uses logos again when he describes man and how all he does is take from the animals and does not give anything back. Old Major says "He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is still lord of all the animals." (Orwell 8) He backs up his claim with this evidence. These words make his fellow animals realize that man is their true enemy and that they should rise up against him. Old Major also tells awful tales of what happen to the animals. He knows of these specific tales because he had witnessed them before.
Test/Quiz: Reteach
‘I like animals.’ ~ George Orwell
In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a little boy whipping a horse and later he wrote,
“It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the [worker].”
Wednesday, Feb. 28, 2018
Friday, March 2, 2018
Mango St.: 13, 14, 16,
Poetry: 1, 3, 5, 14
1) Which of the following best describes the overall tone of the poem? (Think about how this is related to the theme and the poem as a whole, not in parts.)
a. content
b. bitter
c. nostalgic
d. dejected
e. affectionate
5) The word, “vista,” in the first stanza best fits with which of the following definitions

a. a beautiful physical landscape
b. a pleasing view, especially one seen through a long, narrow opening
c. a hidden corridor
d. a mental view of a succession of remembered or anticipated events
e. an extensities crisis
14) What does the phrase “wanted wear” mean in context?
a. The road needs to be traveled.
b. Many people have crossed this way.
c. Not many have worn out the path
d. Each person walks differently.
3) Which of the following is not an example of personification?
a. “the insidious mastery of song / Betrays me back”
b. “in the boom of the tingling strings”
c. “the tinkling piano our guide”
d. “hymns in the cozy parlor”
e. “the heart of me weeps to belong”
He somberly informs his audience, "I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer." (Orwell 6) He does this to gain his audience's sympathy. This will make them more willing to do what he wants them to do.
Logos can be seen when Old Major is describing the living conditions on the farm. He says "The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it. This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep- and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition?" (Orwell 7) Old Major expresses the fact that their farm currently has the proper materials to let the animals live a comfortable life but this cannot be because of Mr. Jones.
Major uses reasoning, comparisons, and if/then scenarios to convince his audience.
Glamour Tread Diverge In spite of
Write the sentence using the correct vocabulary word from list 3
Don't forget--quiz on Friday
Notes Section
Thursday, March 1, 2018
Vocabulary Warm-up
Read & Analyze Expository "A Moment of Trust"
"Independence" Outline
SSR - Ch. 1
The world is full of beauty, luxury, and__________.
The hero________from the crowd, stepping forward to face the dragon alone as the others ran in the opposite direction.
The tired man_______his way through the forest, barely able to lift his feet.
I will make sure I study_______my desire to lounge around lazily instead.
Writer's Notebook: Writing Section
"Animal Farm: Anticipation Guide"
Write the numbers and "true/false." Then pick one and EXPLAIN your thinking.
Answer each true/false statement:
1. All humans are equal.
2. Usually the best and brightest people are leaders.
3. Some people are smarter than others.
4. A dictator can control everything in a country.
5. The government usually does what is best for the most people.
6. You should always believe everything you are told.
7. People who cannot read are easily controlled.
8. People always have the ability to make their own choices.
Write a response to
at least three
of the following questions in complete sentences:
9. What freedoms do we take for granted in the United States? Do you think we have too much freedom? Explain your answer.
10. What freedoms do you think we don't need in the U.S.? Which ones would you be willing to give up if you had to? If you would not be willing to give up any, explain why.
11. What's the difference between coercion and leading? Write a brief explanation, addressing the connotation of each word.
12. In a perfect society: 1) What are four laws? 2) What would you do to help people who are less capable mentally, physically, or socially to "catch up"?
13. How does having power affect people? Does it bring out better/worse qualities? Explain.
Tuesday, Feb. 27, 2018
Grammar/vocab. practice
New book: Animal Farm Ch. 1
Analyze/Score Essay: “A Shared Moment of Trust”
Plan: Independence essay
Teacher checks example + thesis statement
1. Identify why it is "awkward"
2. Fix it!
Notes Section: "Awkward Sentences"
1. In the case of this morning, Mondays, it would seem to me, are entirely difficult to overcome and hard to conquer, in my professional opinion.
2. To conquer this Monday with might, I will be a mighty student and complete this Monday.
3. Deserving of death, I glared angrily thinking of Monday.
Chapter Discussion Questions
Chapter 1 Group Discussion Questions
1. What is significant about how the animals arrange themselves as they gather to hear Major? What might this arrangement say about future meetings or events?
2. According to Major, what is the cause of all the animals’ problems?
3. What motto does Major give the animals?
4. Can you think of ways each of these commandments could be considered a vice?
a. No animal is ever to sleep in a bed.
b. No animal is ever to wear clothes.
c. No animal is ever to drink alcohol.
d. No animal must ever kill any other animal.
e. All animals are equal.
5. Examine the song “Beasts of England” as poetry. What imagery is present? What is the message? Why do the animals like it so much that they memorize it on the spot? To what emotions and needs does it appeal?
1. After Major’s death what happens to the idea of rebelling against man?
1. What further examples of the difference between the pigs and the other animals occur in these two chapters?
1. Why does Mollie run away from the farm?
2. What changes have been made in the weekly meetings over the last year?
3. Explain the windmill controversy from Snowball’s point of view.
4. Explain the windmill controversy from Napoleon’s point of view.
5. What changes does Napoleon make after his dogs chase Snowball off the farm?
6. Why don’t the other animals protest Napoleon’s decisions?
7. Note how the animals now arrange themselves when they enter the barn to receive their orders as compared to the description in Chapter I.
8. What is the importance of the dogs accompanying Squealer when he comes to talk to the animals?
Chapter 6&7 Group Discussion Questions
1. How much work are the animals now doing?
2. Why does Napoleon decide to engage in trade with neighboring farms?
3. How do the animals react?
4. How is the windmill destroyed? Why does Napoleon blame Snowball?
5. Why does Napoleon insist the windmill must be rebuilt immediately?
6. Why does Napoleon order that the hens’ eggs be sold?
7. How does Napoleon react when the hens’ rebel against his orders?
8. Why does Napoleon revive the threat of the farm being sabotaged by Snowball?
9. Explain why the animals confessed to being traitors. Or is there any explanation?
10. Why does Napoleon order the animals to stop singing “Beasts of England?”
Chapter 8&9 Group Discussion
1. What purpose is served by the production figures Squealer reads to the animals?
2. How is Napoleon becoming more and more like a typical dictator?
3. Compare/contrast the poem “Comrade Napoleon” to “Beast of England.”
4. Describe the sale of the stack of lumber. How does Napoleon outwit himself?
5. What makes the battle against Frederick’s men different from the Battle of the Cowshed?
6. Why do the men blow up the windmill?
7. The animals celebrate a victory, but at what cost?
8. Describe the whisky incident. Why would Orwell make this scene somewhat humorous?
9. Why are the animals so easily fooled, even when they find Squealer with a ladder and white paint beside the barn at night?
10. What is happening to Boxer?
11. What are living conditions like for all of the animals except the pigs and dogs?
12. Why does Napoleon allow Moses to return and to tell his stories about Sugarcandy Mountain?
13. What happens to Boxer? How do the animals accept it?
14. Of what kind of person does Benjamin remind you? Give some examples. What is your opinion of such people? What makes people behave this way?
Chapter 10 Group Discussion Questions
1. What changes have the years brought to the farm?
2. How does Orwell make fun of bureaucracy?
3. How do the animals no feel about their social order, their farm?
4. What drastic actions do the pigs use to shatter the animals’ complacency?
5. All seven commandments are erased. What is the new commandment and how has it been true from the beginning?
6. At the conference with neighboring farmers, what new changes does Napoleon point out?
7. What happens to the pigs’ appearance?
The mountain______truly took my breath away.
The ballerina was_________ as she turned perfectly.
Dark, dreary, and__________, the halls of high school feel like a horror film waiting to happen.
Clashing through the day, the children made such a________in their raucous that the parents grew weary.
Insidious Poised Clamor Vista
Write the sentence using the correct vocabulary word from list 3
Don't forget--quiz on Friday
Vocabulary Section
Vocab./grammar practice
Introduce: Orwell & Animal Farm
SSR - Animal Farm Ch. 1 out loud
If time: discussion Qs
Begin: Independence essay
Define It: The first time I stepped out of that car, away from my mom and all the security I had grown up, tears were welling in my eyes and my stomach felt like an endless pit waiting to swallow me up.
Independence is important for every young adult when they first step out into the real world so that they can survive obstacles.
Hook: quote, question, a brief description, startling/interesting fact
Remember It: When I was 19 and first had to take care of my own life, I felt many times that I would fail and feared my utter demise. My parents, likewise, wanted to hold me back and to keep me under their wing, but the valuable lessons I learned were necessary for me to become a full-fledged adult. I had to figure out how to budget to pay rent, how to balance my work-school load, how to keep friends in the mix, and how to keep my tears in check. Nobody was there to coddle me or take care of my problems; they only went away when I dealt with them on my own.
Connect It: These lessons, though difficult at the time, were what shaped me into a more resilient person. There was a time in life not too long ago when I would burst into tears at th slightest problem. Having to constantly face more and more difficult challenges, like working on little sleep, building indepenednt study schedules and skills, and paying bills over having fun, I became a more mature, more capable person. There was no other way to learn these lesssons and become better than to grow though independence.
Restate thesis
Chapter 2 Group Discussion Questions
2. Why don’t the pigs like the pet raven Moses’ stories about Sugarcandy Mountain?
3. What causes the animals to finally rebel against Mr. Jones and his four farmhands?
4. When the humans have been chased from the farm, what do the animals do?
5. What do the animals do about the farmhouse?
6. How does the behavior of the pigs foreshadow their eventual leadership positions?
Friday, March 2, 2018
(15) Vocab./Grammar Quiz
(15) SSR
(60) Animal Farm: EPL Speech Analysis
(20) Independence
The college student union was grand and impressive, pure__________, with a grand piano, beautiful chairs to lounge on, and the beautiful magic of learning in the air. One student played an enchanting piece__________, pounding on the keys through the song. _______my best efforts, I shed a few tears, overwhelmed. As I stepped outside the building, I noticed flowers growing in the_________of the garden.

Undergrowth - Glamour - In spite of - Appassionato
Vocabulary 3 Practice
4. Write a capital X over a lot, just, very, get, got, gotten, put, puts, has, have, had, good, bad, mad, angry, sad, happy, awesome, thing, and any be or is-words you missed the first time. Most of these words, like piles of junk, create unappealing communication. Can you eliminate any? Look carefully at every that; are they all necessary?
1. Circle all “to be” verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, and been. Include contractions: I’m, They’re, and It’s. Count them and WRITE the number at the top of your paper. Goal: eliminate this number by half.
2. Underline each sentence in alternating, bright map pencils (ex: red and blue). This step visually identifies sentences of approximately the same length. Make appropriate adjustments after ratiocinating to gain variety in sentence length. Try varying your sentence length to accommodate your meaning. Very short sentences can add emphasis to a point, and long ones can be more sophisticated. This process adds voice.
3. Place a bracket around all the words at the beginning of a sentence. Then write down your list of words in the margin of the paper. This step vividly identifies similar sentence starters. No two sentences (in each paragraph, for sure!) should begin the same way.
Add an analogy and/or figurative language!
After completing these steps, go back and begin a second draft of your paper,
Grammar & Vocab. Quiz 3
SSR + answer Qs Ch. 1-3
Background: Animal Farm (see Nearpod)
Literature Circles - Propaganda activity
English I
Quickwrite: response to video about “independence”
Grammar & Vocab. Quiz 3
SSR: Animal Farm Ch. 2
INDEPENDENCE - finish outline/thesis statements
If finished: add imagery/figurative language/analogy
Literature Circles - Animal Farm
Work on chapter questions
Get on Google Classroom fo yo quiz!
Chapter 3&4 Group Discussion Questions
2. What are Napoleon’s ideas about education?
3. How is Squealer able to convince the other animals to accept whatever Napoleon decides?
4. Describe the Battle of the Cowshed.
5. What was Snowball’s part in this battle?
6. Where is Napoleon during the battle?
7. What is the significance of the gun’s placement at the foot of the flagpole?
Monday, March 5, 2018
English I
SSR + Journal Entry
Engish I: Read Ch. 3
This week - Ch. 3-7
2. How does the behavior of the pigs foreshadow their eventual leadership positions? What differences are you noticing between the pigs and the other animals? Give examples from the novel.
Pre-AP: Reach Ch. 4
This week - Ch. 4-8
Writing Section: "Animal Farm Pigs"
(15) Grammar lesson: apostrophes, then/than
(5) Vocab./grammar practice: Add from Major’s Speech
(15) SSR + Journal Entry
(45) Write 2nd draft of essay
Propaganda activity (to prep. for project)
(20) Grammar lesson: apostrophes, then/than
(5) Add vocab. from Animal Farm
(15) SSR + Journal Entry
(45) Independence 1st draft - 45 minutes
1. Find 3-5 vocabulary words (from ch. 1-3)
Animal Farm Background
Tuesday, March 6, 2018
English I
SSR + Writing Entry
Engish I: Read Ch. 4
This week - Ch. 3-7
2. What changes have been made in the weekly meetings over the last year?
3. Explain the windmill controversy from Snowball’s point of view.
4. Explain the windmill controversy from Napoleon’s point of view.
5. What changes does Napoleon make after his dogs chase Snowball off the farm?
6. Why don’t the other animals protest Napoleon’s decisions?
Pre-AP: Reach Ch. 5
This week - Ch. 4-8
1. Find 3-5 vocabulary words (from ch. 1-3)

(adj.): requiring much work, exertion
(adj.) [ig-nuh-
-ee-uhs]: marked by ignominy (disgrace, dishonor, public contempt)

(*n. OR v.): N – hard work; V – to engage in hard work
(adj.): depressed of hope, discouraged
(adj.): distrusting or disparaging the motives of others; characteristic of a cynic
Vocabulary List 4 Practice
There was a man in the town whom all knew to be an__________(adj.) grouch, unloved, disgraced, and distrusted. But the feeling was mutual, as he, too, hated those in the town, and thus had decided to construct a wall around his home to cut himself off. Grumbling to himself about his neighbors, the_________(adj.) man complained about the lies and failings of people. He continued with his_________(n.) as he worked day in and day out to build the wall. He could not be__________(adj.), though his neighbors every day frowned at him for wanting to separate himself from the rest. Though the task was_____________(adv.) and tiring, he would not rest until he finished.
SSR (15min)
(45) Propaganda activity (to prep. for project)
Introduce PROJECT (See Google Classroom)
3rd: create vocabulary/grammar exercises
SSR + Add vocab. From first 4 chapters
PowerPoint: Animal Farm
Propaganda project OR EPL
Chapter 5 Group Discussion Questions
Answer TWO of the following:
Describe the Battle of Cowshed. Where was Napoleon? Where was Snowball? Why might this be important?
Wednesday, March 7, 2018
English I
SSR + Writing Entry
Engish I: Read Ch. 5
This week - Ch. 3-7
Pre-AP: Reach Ch. 6
This week - Ch. 4-8
(n.): the practice or art of using language with fluency and aptness
(adv.): deserving of or held in contempt (the feeling/regard of anything considered vile/worthless); despicable
(adj.): serious, formal, grave, somber, sober, without joking/laughter
(adj.): mysterious in meaning; puzzling; ambiguous
a. can also be abrupt; terse; short; secret; occult
(adj.): incapable of being repressed or restrained; uncontrollable
Vocabulary List 4 Practice
(5) Vocabulary/Grammar warm-up
(15) SSR
Introduce PROJECT
(45) Start Animal Farm Project: Allegory/Propaganda
Phase 1: outline for project complete, teacher approval required by end of class
Answer TWO of the following:
Write a creative paragraph using all 5 of these words.
Use at least 1 AAAWWUBBIS and one FANBOYS
Even though I like my dessert better______dinner, I chose to eat my vegetables first and______ice cream.
English I Vocabulary 4 Practice
(15) Then/Than/Apostrophes Practice + Vocab.
(15) SSR + journal response
(30) Finish EPL Animal Farm activity
(30) Reading practice - “Conformity” & “Herd Behavior”
(adv.): in a way showing love, care, attachment
(n.): being removed, separated, in solitude
(v.): to do hard/laborious work
(n.): hard and continuous work, exhausting labor/effort
(n.): a theory or system of social organization
The mother smoothed her child's hair__________(adv.) as she prepared to go off and work through the day of________(n.) ahead. You see, they lived in a country of__________ (n.) that required all to________(v.) equally and together. They never went hungry, but they also never had too much. Everyone lived in a community, and nobody was alone in______(n.).
Even though I like my dessert better______dinner, I chose to eat my vegetables first and______ice cream.
Thursday, March 8, 2018
Grammar - Add Apostrophes
When Ive time to think, I often consider my moms great love for her kids. Shes our rock, our mountain of hope and dreams. My siblings lives and mine are all owed to her. Its my dream to repay her for all shes done, but thats impossible. Ill love you forever she always said.
Grammar - Add Apostrophes
English I
8. Downtrodden (adj.): tyrannized over; oppressed
9. Sterilized (adj.): to make clean and free of germs (using high heat)
10. Grudging (adj.): displaying or reflecting reluctance or unwillingness
11. Deliberate (adj.): carefully considered, done on purpose with thought
I knew they would never forgive me. I was_______to them, shamed forever by my treachery. I walked away in disgrace, my face serious, my demeanor_______. But my revenge would be soon and sweet. My anger was________, unstoppable. I glared________at the ground, rage in my heart.
When Ive time to think, I often consider my moms great love for her kids. Shes our rock, our mountain of hope and dreams. My siblings lives and mine are all owed to her. Its my dream to repay her for all shes done, but thats impossible. I'll love you forever she always said.
"Your lie was________(adj.), completely on purpose," she growled at me. The previously __________(adj.) kitchen, cleaned deeply by bleach and hot water, was now covered in a mess of my making. I knew I'd really done it then, but I was still stubbornly trying to deny it, staring at her with a_________(adj.) resistance. I was tired of her bossing me around, tired of feeling_______(adj.) as the youngest one in the family.
English I
Project Part 2: Write/Peer Edit
Complete “Conformity” & “Herd Behavior”
Read “Students' Work Ethic . . ."
Edit/Revise Blog Post
Allegory: Dr. Seuss
Full transcript