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# Module 2 Reliability and Maintainability

by

## Jorge Asiain

on 1 January 2018

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#### Transcript of Module 2 Reliability and Maintainability

Machinery Maintenance
Module 2 - Reliability and Maintainability
Jorge Asiain, CEng
Ingeniería Industrial y Aeroespacial
Reliability
The probability that an item can perform its intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions.
Reliability parameters are probabilistic.
Failure function
Reliability function
Time to failure probability density function
Failure rate
Hazard rate
Failure rate estimation.
Handbook of Reliability Prediction Procedures for Mechanical Equipment (NSWC).
MIL-HDBK-217F.
Telcordia SR-332.
CNET/RDF 2000.
NRPD-95
IRPH-93
OREDA

Review
Maintainability
Maintainability is a measure of the ease and rapidity with which a system or equipment can be restored to operational status following a failure.

It is a function of the equipment design and installation, personnel availability in the required skill levels, adequacy of maintenance procedures and test equipment, and the physical environment under which maintenance is performed.

As with reliability, maintainability parameters are also probabilistic.
Time to maintain probability density function

g(t)
Maintainability function
Repair rate function
Mean time to Repair - MTTR
Availability
Availability is defined as the probability that a system is operating satisfactorily at any random point in time.
It is a combination of reliability and maintainability parameters.
Achieved Availability Aa(t)
Intrinsic Availability Ai(t)
Instantaneous Availability A(t)
Mission Availability Am(t2-t1)
Maintenance Time Ratio
Reliability Block Diagram - RBD
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic Reliability Design Handbook
Life Data Analysis (Weibull Analysis) - Reliasoft
Series.

Parallel.

K-out-of-n.

Stand-by.
Series - Reliability
Parallel - Reliability
K-out-of-n - Reliability
Stand-by - Reliability
Series - Availability
Parallel and Stand-by - Availability
How do you improve the availability?
Game of Maintainability
MIL STD 721C Definitions of terms for reliability and maintainability.
STAPELBERG, R.F. Handbook of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety in engineering design. London: Springer, 2009. pag.66
BERSTCHE, B. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering. Berlin: Springer, 2008. pag. 23.
BERSTCHE, B. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering. Berlin: Springer, 2008. pag. 24.
BERSTCHE, B. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering. Berlin: Springer, 2008. pag. 27
BERSTCHE, B. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering. Berlin: Springer, 2008. pag. 28
BERSTCHE, B. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering. Berlin: Springer, 2008. pag. 32
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998.
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998. pag. 5-47.
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998.
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998. pag. 5-72
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998. pag. 5-81.
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998. pag 5-33.
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic reliability design handbook. 1998. pag. 5-31.
RAMS Consulting

RISK Assessment
Reliability
& Risk
Review

C&C - Cause & Consequence ETA - Event Tree Analysis

FMEA - Failure Modes and Effects Analysis FTA - Fault Tree Analysis

HAZOP - Hazard and Operability Study QRA - Risk Assessment

RCA - Root Cause Analysis SIL - Safety Integrity Level

BARABADY J. and KUMAR U. Realiability Characteristics Based Maintenance Scheduling: A Case Study of a Crushing Plant. International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No 3, July 2007. pp 322.
Risk
= Probability X Consequences
ALARP Carrot Diagram
Norsok Standard Z-013 Ed. 3 Oct.2010. Risk and Emergency Preparedness Assessment. Annex A. Risk metrics, criteria and ALARP evaluations. page 68.
Cause & Consequence
is a methodology that embodies both causal and consequences analysis.

It provides a diagrammatic notation for expressing the potential consequences of an event and the factor that influence the outcome.
FTA
is a logical diagram that shows the relations between system failure and failures of the components of the system.

FTA is a
deductive technique
that focused in a particular accident of failure, and provides a method for determining causes of that event.
ETA
is an
inductive logic method
for identifying the various accident/incident sequences that can generate from a single initiating event.
FMEA
is an
inductive and systematical method
. Its idea is the determination of all possible failure models for components.

At the same time the possible failure effects and failure causes are presented.

The procedure is concluded with a risk assessment and specifications for optimization actions.
SAE J 1739
SAE J 1739
SAE J 1739
RPN
= Probability X Severity X Detection
RCA
is a logical sequence of steps that allows to
isolate the facts surrounding an event or failure
.

Once the problem has been fully defined, the analysis systematically determines the best course of action that will resolve the event and ensure that it is not repeated.
HAZOP
analysis is a
systematic process to identify hazards and operability problems
occurring as a result of deviations from the intended range of process conditions.

Using a fixed set of guide words which are applied to specific
process parameters
at discrete locations or
study nodes
in the process system.
SIL
is one of four discrete stages in specifying the
requirements for the safety functions
, which are assigned to the E/E/PE safety-related systems.
1.
Cause and effect
are the
same
thing.

2. Each effect has at least
two causes
in the form of
actions
and
conditions
.

3. Causes and effects are part of an
infinite continuum
of causes.

4. An effect exists only if its causes exist in the
same space and time
frame.
7.
Implement
and track
solutions
.
1.
Define the problem
.
(What? When? Where?)
2. Determine the causal relationships.
(Why? Actions or Conditions)
3. Provide a graphical representation.
(
Cause and Effect chart
).
4. Provide evidence.
5. Determine if causes are sufficient and necessary.
6.
Identify effective solutions
.
(Prevent recurrence, Be within your control,
Meet your goals, Not cause other problems).
Example of Risk Matrix.
Epílogo:

CASE STUDY
CASE STUDY
STAPELBERG, R.F. Handbook of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety in engineering design. London: Springer, 2009. pag.57-58
MIL-HDBK-338B Electronic Reliability Design Handbook. Page 5-9
CASE STUDY
Brief History
Case Study
Case Study:
Water pump in Taq Taq
Iso-risk Plot.
API RP 580 Risk based inspection (RBI)
http://nomtbf.com/
FMEA is like a formal, estructured, vern of Murphy's law
API 691
Risk-based Machinery Management
ISO 31000 :2009 Risk Management Process
PREVENTION
DETECTION
CONTROL
MITIGATION
EMERGENCY RESPONSE

ISO 17776:2000 Guidelines on tools and techniques for hazard identification and risk assessment.
FRACAS
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