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Transcript of The Mongols
Rise of the Empire
Conquest of Central Asia
Conquest of Northern China
Conquest of Persia
No central government
Mongolian overlords supervised local administrators.
One Empire Becomes Four
Temujin 1167 CE
noble family, warrior father
poisoned father, no alliance
late 12th century - alliance with clan leader
steppe diplomacy (loyalties depend on personal gain)
eventually united in a single confederation
1206 CE "universal leader"
mistrusted tribal organization -> military units with no affiliation
talents and loyalty vs. kinship and tribal status
Mongol population < 1% of China's population
Found in North east Asia bordering China and Russia
Lived on the High steppe Lands of eastern central Asia
The Mongols Weapons of War
The Composite Bow
Into the Wild:
Activity Time: Build Your Own Yurt
Tough. Strong. Diligent.
Put Yourself in Their Shoes.
Let Your Minds Wander in Their Land.
Decline of the Mongols
excessive spending & overexploitation of the peasants -> reduced revenues
attempt at paper money
last dies without an heir 1335 CE -> collapse
Yuan Dynasty in China
lost confidence in paper money
power struggles, imperial assassinations, civil war starting 1320s CE
1340s peasant rebellion and banditry
rebel forces -> Mongols left en masse 1368
increase trade throughout Eurasia -> spread of disease
Russia's Golden Horde
until mid 16th century. Russian resurgent state. threaten until 18th century
stayed in Crimean Peninsula until Josef Stalin 20th century
Genghis Khan's death -> power struggle
China: great khans
Khubilai (grandson) - extend to all of China
Song Dynasty -> emperor of Yuan Dynasty until 1368 CE
attempts for Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java
naval attempt for Japan
interest in cultural matters
supported Daoists, Muslims, Christians
welfare and roads
Hulegu (grandson, brother of Khubilai)
seized capital, massacred > 200,00 residents
Muslims expelled Mongols from Egypt -> limit on expansion to the southwest
being governors necessary, not just conquerors
Persians administered but taxes and order required
slowly adopted Persian ways - converted to Islam -> massacre of Christians and Jews
Who Are the Mongols?
Russia: The Golden Horde
exploratory expeditions into Poland, Hungary, and East Germany
steppes north of Black Sea for horses
large army for raids
Russia was unattractive but took tributes
The Mongols & Trade
1. Mongols worked to secure trade routes and ensure safety of merchants
*kept order among themselves
*trading was more safer
*far places have direct links for the
2. Elaborate courier network with relay stations
*long distance communications
*messages traveled fast
3. Maintained good order for traveling merchants, ambassadors, and missionaries
*merchants traveled peacefully
*ambassadors dealings were beneficial
*missionaries works were successful
The Mongolians started to domesticate (
) horses around
and used them in battle.
A Mongolian warrior would
horses hunting and herding them at an early age.
When the warrior turns
fifteen years old
, they would go into the army.
Once a soldier
, they were given
that they would alternate between so they would
always be ready for battle
The Composite Bow
Composite Bow vs English Long Bow
Catapult attack on "Tanguts"
The Mongolian warriors used three different types of arrows all for different purposes.
One used for fighting had an
and could go as far as 200 meters.
Another arrow with a
was used for piercing through the skin of enemies.
The last type of
arrow had holes
in it that, when shot, would make a whistling sound that could be used to tell others which direction to march in.