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Beatriz Rosety

on 7 June 2015

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Transcript of UN

UN Role and Libya Civil War
September 16, 2011
Resolution 2009
Restore security and rule of law
Dialogue and conciliation
UNSMIL Resolutions
United Nations Support Mission in Libya
Political mission established by the SC in Res.2009 in Sept 2011 at the request of the Libyan authorities after 6 months of armed conflict.
Res.2009 was initially mandated for 3 months. The SC extended the operation in Res.2022 (Dec.2011), Res.2040 (March 2012) and the last Res.2144 (March 2014) to enhance the mission for another 12 months to work in development, human rights and political transition
S/RES/2174 (2014)- Calls for immediate ceasefire in Libya
S/RES/2144 (2014) - Extends the mission until March 2015
S/RES/2146 (2014) - Condemns illicit oil export from Libya
Reports on the situation in Libya have been issued in February and September each year from the begining of the mission
Articles and Legal Scope
SC: Responsible organ of the UN for the peace-keeping and security according to the Charter. The peace-keeping operation (UNSMIL) can only be established under the agreement of both parties, the SC and Libya.
Art.24: The SC has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Art.26: Regulation of armaments

Art.33: Pacific settlement of disputes

Art.34: The SC may investigate

Art.39: The SC shall determine the existance of any threat to the peace and shall take measures

Art.41: The SC may take sanctions not involving the use of armed force

Art.42: The SC may take armed force actions through air, sea and land
International situation
United States asked for permission to the SC, on March 2011, to use the necessary means (including armed force) to stop the attacks on civilians by Gadhafi. USA (NATO) expressed their will to enter Libya considering that the country had not responded to the requests of the SC to stop the violent acts.
The same year, the Council of the League of Arab States welcomed the suggestion of the US and called on the SC to impose a no-fly zone on Libyan military aviation, as well as establishing safe areas and shelters for the protection of people.
Gaddafi government during the military intervention
Second Battle of Benghazi (19-20 March, 2011)
Gaddafi Loyalists
Gaddafi's situation in the international context
Battle of Tripoli (20-28 August, 2011)
Gaddafi Loyalists
French warplanes
, in compliance with Resolution 1973, entered combat.

-Gaddafi forces
in the recapture Benghazi and rebels got an strategic and decisive victory.
Anti-Gaddafi forces
UNSC Resolution 1973 forces
(French warplanes)
After the adoption of UNSC Resolution 1970 and, especially, UNSC Resolution 1973, the situation of the Gaddafi regime was catastrophic...

-Without diplomatic support.

-His armed forces could not cope with an international coalition.

-Gadafi was condemned by the international community, and was being wanted by the International Criminal Court.

-The financial resources of the regimen had been frozen. (Smart sanctions)
International Criminal's Court
Peaceful means did not give results
UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)
Anti-Gaddafi forces
UNSC Resolution 1973 forces
(NATO command)
Peaceful protests turned into a civil war, especially when Gaddafi's forces used aviation to bomb protesters
Anti-Gaddafi forces (militias of rebels, civilians officers and army troops)
Uprisings in Cyrenaica (northeastern of Libya)
Rebel-held territory
Protests spread rapidly over the whole country
Some western cities fell under the control of militias
Tripoli surrounded
Gaddafi loyalist fought to regain control of oil enclaves
On march Gaddafi troops managed objectives:
Entered in Brega to stop the advance of rebels towards Sirte
Formation of National Transitional Council by insurgents
Land and air attacks over eastern region regaining control over: - Zawiya - oil enclave of Ras Lanuf
Libyan forces loyal to Gaddafi
Tripoli: main political objective from the start of the revolution.

Tripoli passed into the hands of the rebels... Consequences:

-Fall of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
-National Transitional Council took the ministries of Defense and Interior
-Last loyals to Gaddafi escaped to Bani Walid and Sirte.
FEB-MAR 2011
Feb 15: Arrest of Fathi Terbil
Feb 17: Day of Rage
Both armed groups were still fighting over Ajdabiya, Zintan and Misurata
Battle of Sirte (15 September-20 October, 2011)
Italian Colony
Independence in 1951, monarchy

Discovering oil reserves in 1959, corruption led to the Free Offices Movement: coup d'état in 1969 - Gaddafi's regime under a socialism + islam
From Independence to Gaddafi
Anti-Gaddafi forces
UNSC Resolution 1973 forces
(NATO command)
Gaddafi Loyalists
Gaddafi took refuge in Sirte, his hometown.

On October 20, Gaddafi's convoy was bombed by NATO planes. Gaddafi, badly wounded, was captured and killed for Anti-Gaddafi forces. Although NATO couldn't overthrow Gaddafi it unlawfully helped the rebels

Finally, on October 22, the Libyan army said the military operations were over. The NATO ended military operations in Libya on October 31.
The Pan Arabism dream
Good relations with Nasser

Establishing a new idea of unity between the arab community

A profound sense of Islam within a secular regime

Hating muslim brothers
Change into Pan Islamism
Another try to establish his leadership in the world

The start of interventions.

Close relation with Russia because of weapons market.

The green book

The Pan Africanism
Leader of the African Union

Interventions in African countries (Chad)

Upsetting the international society.
Gaddafi's style: trying to be a focus in international society.
The Libya of Gaddafi
The 70's
An Arabic unity within a racial discourse. Pan Arabism ("Mohammedism")

The time for science, not for radicalism. Integrating some Koranic rules in the Law without establishing Sharia Law but a secular regime beyond all.

Gaddafi's enemies: Religious groups + monarchy supporters.

The 80's
The Jamahiriya transition, a new participative system through popular committees.

The 90's
Demonetization of the figure of Gaddafi

Stop of the interventions

Pan Africanism. The African Union.

Inhibition, trying to restore good relations with the international society. Assuming sanctions.
Last years
Libya continued paying for compensation and apologizing for the terrorist attacks perpetrated
in the past.

Disarmament of weapons of mass destruction.

Relations with the west improving.

Opening again the market.

A transition
The responsibility to protect in the case of the Libyan war of 2011
UNSC Res. 1970
When this UNSC Resolution was approved, there were still in Libyan soil nationals of many countries of the Security Council and it was believed that the Libyan regime would fall quickly without external force action
UNSC Res. 1973
1. The solution to the problem of democracy

2. The solution to the economic power

3. The social basis of the third universal theory
The Green Book
Resolution 1973 was adopted in a context in that Benghazi was in serious danger. If Benghazi had been taken by troops loyal to Gaddafi, it would have meant a bloodshed . Resolution 1973 allowed military intervention that led to the overthrow of Gaddafi.
Inside the book
Inspired by the red book of Mao Zedong

A politicized Islam: social justice

Opposing to every political and economic system existing, from capitalism to communism.

A guide for the whole world

Trying to achieve a real popular system within a dictatorship and without democracy: Developing the standards of living + Repressing liberties of population

Geopolitical Background
Nationalization of 60% of oil export enterprises (1973)

Contributing to the creation of OPEC (1973)

33rd country with the higher crude oil production and 9th with higher crude oil proved reserves

Libyans (except pro-Gaddafi) celebrated the happening that was supposed to be the first step to a new democratic Libya.
July 2011: First democratic elections in since 1964
They went from an autocracy that did not allow having a parliament or constitution to an election with more than 3,800 candidates, 140 political parties...
National Transitional Council
Takes power after Gaddafi's death, with Mustafa Abdul Jalil as chief. Host elections for National Assembly. Ruled for ten months. Could not defeat the militias and fight insecurity.
Benghazi attack
A jihadist group attacked the american consulate in Benghazi causing several deaths including the US ambassador.

Security Council
Chapter VII UN Charter & article 41
-immediate end to violence
-urges Libyan authorities
Humanitarian & medical supplies
March 31, 2011
Resolution 1973/2011 March 17, 2001
After United States & coalition members domination

NATO Intervention
-Article 5
-Manifest of these treaties= transformation of right of self-defense in an obligation
-Pay attention to North Atlantic treaty text
-NATO is trained

Security Council
Chapter VII UN Charter & article 41:
-immediate end to violence
-urges Libyan authorities
General National Congress
Humanitarian and medical supplies
Citizens safety
The Government in power also failed to fight violence. On December 2013, they approved the Sharia Law and unilaterally decided to extend their agreed 18 months period. They were extremely islamic.
International Criminal Court's district

Peaceful measures did not give results

United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)
-September 16, 2011. Resolution 2009
-Restore security & international law
-Dialogue & reconciliation
Frebruary 2014, Jalifa Haftar demanded the dissolution of the GNC, on behalf of the Libyan Republic Alliance. Haftar also ordered the "Operation Dignity". Which intended to eliminate radical Islamists.
New Parliament
After the coup d'etat the country divides in two and now has two governments. On June 2014 there are elections with really poor participation in which islamists are defeated. The elections resulted in deadly violence and illegal acts. There were still two "governments".
Coup d'etat
International Reactions
The country's security kept deteriorating, they were really close to an economic collapse and there was an ongoing civil war. Embassies were closing, foreigners left and airlines cancelled flights to Libya. Some begged for an intervention from part of the UN, which considered that it would undermine their democratic transition. Egypt and UAE supported. UN proposed peace talks that have a deadline (JUNE 17). The two factions are trying to focus in fighting terrorism instead of pointing at each other.

31 March, 2011
After United States and members coalition domination
Article 5
Transformation self-defense in obligation
North Atlantic Treaty's text
Libya Today
Full transcript