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Foundations of American Government

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Caitlyn Kelly

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of Foundations of American Government

Foundations of American Government
Hobbes
LOCKE
-John Locke was born on August 29, 1632 and died on October 28, 1704.
-Locke was an English philosopher with many philosophical ideologies.
-Locke wrote the book Two Treatises on Government in 1689.
-Locke believed that the people in which were ruled helped create governments to protect their rights.
-Locke believed that everyone was born with natural rights such as, life, liberty, and property.
-Also Locke believed that the government had a duty to the people and if they failed to uphold their duties the people could overthrow the government because the government was formed to protect the peoples rights.
-Locke's ideologies were represented in the American Government by that people were born with natural rights, the government has an obligation to its people, and that its people can overthrow the government.

Rousseau
-Jean Jacques Rousseau was born on June 28, 1712 and died on July 2, 1778.
-Rousseau was a French philosopher, who had many intellectual ideologies.
-Rousseau wrote the book The Social Contract in 1762.
-Rousseau believed that people were naturally good.
-He also believed that people were corrupted and enslaved by society.
-Rousseau believed that all men were born free with natural rights and that all men were equal.
-Last but not least, Rousseau believed that the government had the responsibility of obtaining the peoples freedom and if they couldn't then there should be no government.
-Rousseau’s ideologies were represented in the American government by that all men are equal, especially through voting and laws. Also his ideologies were represented in the American government by what we know today as the social contract theory.

Philosophers and Philosophical Ideologies
Voltaire
Montesquieu
Influential Documents
Magna Carta 1215
Petition of Right
-Thomas Hobbes was born on April 5th, 1588 and died on December 4, 1679.
-Hobbes was from England and was a philosopher. Therefore, Hobbes was an English philosopher.
-Hobbes wrote the book Leviathan in 1651 about his beliefs and theories.
-Hobbes believed that people weren't capable of governing himself because they were to self-concerned. Because of this, he believed that every government should have a tough leader, who was very strict and controlled everything.
-Therefore, Hobbes created the idea of social contract theory, which was the idea that the legitimacy of a government stems from unwritten contract between the ruler and the ruled.
-Hobbe's ideologies were represented in the American Government by that, basically, people need government and that they will be protected.

-Baron De Montesquieu was born in January 18, 1689 and died on February 10, 1755.
- Montesquieu was a French philosopher who had many ideas.
- Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of Laws in 1748.
- Montesquieu believed that a democracy was the greatest establishment of government.
-Montesquieu said that the power should be divided in a democracy, if not it won’t work.
-Montesquieu also believed that when lawmaking and law enforcement are united there is no liberty.
-Therefore, Montesquieu’s ideologies were represented in the American government by having a democracy and by having divided power between Regional and National government.

-Voltaire was born on November 21, 1694 and died on May 30, 1778.
- Voltaire wrote Candide in 1759.
-Voltaire also wrote "Philosophical Dictionary" in 1764.
-Voltaire was a French philosopher.
-Voltaire believed that religion and government should be separated.
-Voltaire believed that freedom of speech was very important too.
-He also believed and pushed forward the idea of absolute equality of all men.
-Voltaire's ideologies were represented in the American government by U.S. citizens having equality in the sense that we have free religion and freedom of speech.
The Magna Carta is an influential document that led to revolutionary thought and the formation of American government that King John was forced to sign by the nobles. King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta because he fought with the pope, raised taxes to pay for the war, and he tried to reduce the power of the nobles. The Magna Carta, which applies to the nobles, establishes four things. The Magna Carta establishes a limited government, which means that a government's power is clearly defined, so the nobles say what the King can and cannot do. Also the Magna Carta established rule of law, which is that everyone including the government has to follow the law. Another thing that the Magna Carta established is due process of law, which meant that all trials would be fair and would have safeguards and legal procedures. Last but not least the Magna Carta established individual rights, which are the rights and liberties that can be claimed by individuals by virtue of being human that should be protected by and from the government of those people. Since the Magna Carta established all these things, it helped the formation of the American government by how our government today is limited, has rule of law, due process of law and also has individual rights.
Mayflower Compact
1620
The Mayflower Compact was an influential document that led to revolutionary thought and the formation of American government. The Mayflower Compact was created to prevent the colonists from using their own liberty because there was no one who had the power to command them because they went to MA instead of VA on their trip to the United States. The Mayflower Compact, which applied to the 101 people on the Mayflower, said two things. The Mayflower compact said that it established a government based on majority. Also the Mayflower Compact states that it is a social contract, which is an unwritten contract between the ruler and the ruled, among the settlers so that they follow the rules and regulations in order that they survive. In conclusion, the Mayflower Compact led to the formation of the American government because it gave a sense of social contract.
The Petition of Right was one of the many influential documents. Also the Petition of Rights led to revolutionary thought and the formation of American government. The Petition of Right was created because King Charles was ignoring the Magna Carta and doing many things that were seen as bad for the English people. The Petition of Right, which protected the English people, said two things which helped the formation of American government. The first thing the Petition of Right said was that it established additional rights such as, that only parliament could raise taxes, that no imprisonment as aloud without reason, and no quartering of soldiers. Also the Petition of Right enforced the idea of a limited government, which is a political system in which the powers exercised by the government are restricted.
The English Bill of Rights was an influential document that led to revolutionary thought and the formation of American government. The English Bill of Rights was created because England had emerged in a civil war and parliament asked William and Mary to become the monarchs only under the conditions of the English Bill of Rights. The English Bill of Rights, which protects all English citizens, says many things that helped the formation of American government. The English Bill of Rights extremely limits the power of monarchs, which are rulers who exercise supreme power based on hereditary and divine right. Also the English Bill of Rights says that the monarchs can act only with parliaments permission. Last but not least the English Bill of Rights expands individual rights, such as giving the right to bear arms, the right to petition the king, and freedom from cruel and unusual punishments. In general, the English Bill of Rights led to the formation of American government because it establishes more individual rights that are important in an American government and because it helps American government not give too much power to their leader.
Founding Fathers and Their Roles
Benjamin Franklin was a Founding Father of The Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 and died on April 17, 1790. Benjamin like all of the Founding Fathers played a role in the writing of The Declaration Of Independence and he was one of the five members that were in the “Committee of Five”. One of Benjamin Franklin's roles was giving advice to Thomas Jefferson and reviewing over his first draft, which lead of the making of slight revisions. Also another role Benjamin Franklin played was an influence on America and abroad.
John Adams was a Founding Father of The Declaration of Independence. Adams was born on October 30, 1735 and died on July 4, 1826. John Adams was one of the five members in the “Committee of Five”, which was a group of five people who were lead to write The Declaration of Independence, and he was the 2nd U.S. President. Adams as an important Founding Father had many roles in creating The Declaration of Independence. One of Adams roles was to look over and review the first draft and make changes. He also played a role in the debates with Congress that leaded to more changes before it was published.
Thomas Jefferson, who was on the “Committee of Five” and was a Founding Father of The Declaration of Independence, was born on April 13, 1743 and died on July 4, 1826. Thomas Jefferson, who was the third U.S. President, had a major role in creating The Declaration of Independence. Jefferson's role was to construct the starting draft of The Declaration of Independence. Basically, Jefferson was the main author of The Declaration of Independence.
Robert L. Livingston, a Founding Father and a member of the “Committee of Five”, was born on November 27, 1746 and died on February 26, 1813. Robert L. Livingston played as a role in the process of The Declaration of Independence. Robert L. Livingston like the other members helped draft The Declaration of Independence. Even though Livingston helped draft The Declaration of Independence, before he could sign it he was called away from Congress.
Roger Sherman was one of the many Founding Fathers and he was born on April 19, 1721 and he died on July 23, 1793. Roger Sherman, as of a member of the “Committee of Five”, had a leading role in The Declaration of Independence. Roger Sherman's leading Role in The Declaration of Independence was to help assist with the drafting of the document because it was very important and everything had to be perfect.
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“He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.”
Rationale and Explantion of Why the Colonies Declared Independence
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Ratonale and Explanation
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Rationale and Explantion
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Rationale and Explanation
The Articles of Confederation, the Governmental Weaknesses and Rationale
A weakness that the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that Congress did not have the power to tax. This means that things like programs that make roads and things like that wouldn't be funded because they couldn’t force them to give the government money to do things like this. Also this means that the government will have no money to pay for military and post offices etc. Last but not least because Congress had no power to tax this means that if they needed money for something, especially if it was urgent, they wouldn’t have the money to pay for it.
Another weakness that the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that Congress did not have the power to regulate trade between the states. This means that one state could tax another states goods, while other states don’t and this could create a problem because it would be harder for certain states to get certain goods and if they did get them they would be higher in cost. Also this means some states could be economically powerful than others because they tax goods that are important, so they would get more money. Last but not least this means that disputes could occur between certain states and that is never good.
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A weakness that the the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that Congress didn’t have the power to make the states obey the Articles of Confederation or any laws made by Congress. This means that the states could do anything they want and not have to do obey anything, which practically means that they are no restricted. This also means that since they don't have to obey anything and that they could do anything that the government is a mess and doesn't really straighten them out because restrictions are required to keep everything in order and not completely chaos.
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Also a weakness that the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that Congress couldn’t settle disputes. This means that if two states or more get argument they can’t do anything, which is bad because fights can occur and bad resolution can end up happening. Also because since they can’t settle disputes states can pick sides and the problems can grow bigger and the states can break apart and that will create a bigger problem altogether.
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A weakness that the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that the government had no executive or judicial power. This means that there is no one making quick decisions and/ or anyone settling disputes like said before. As being a weakness this is bad because the different branches make the government stable and give it checks and balances.
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A weakness that the Articles of Confederation had in its government was that population wasn’t taken into account. This meant that each state regardless of population had one vote in making decisions etc. Since each state had one vote, larger states didn’t like it because it wasn’t fair representation because they held a lot of people, but they would only get one vote.
The end....
by Caitlyn Kelly
Major Events
The French and Indian War that occurred in 1754-1763 was a major event that led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American Government. The French and Indian War was a seven year war fought between France and Great Britain over land that was in America. When the war ended, Great Britain was faced with debt and sooner or later would decide to raise taxes. So the French and Indian War helps lead to colonies declaring independence over Great Britain and the formation of American government because this helps them realize they don’t want to be controlled and the wanted to have their land and make up their own rules, such as in their own government.
The French and Indian War
Stamp Act
The Stamp Act that occurred in March of 1765 was a major event that led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American Government. The Stamp Act was an act that was passed by parliament that put a tax on the colonists. This tax was a tax on any printed paper goods that the colonist used or bought. This was an event that lead to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American government because the colonists didn’t want to pay for Britain's debts and they wanted a say, especially, since they used paper goods a lot. Also it made them realize that they wanted something different than Great Britain controlling them.
Townshend Acts
The Townshend Acts that occurred in 1767 were major events that led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American Government. The Townshend Acts were more taxes that were passed by parliament on other materials. These materials, that had taxes put on, were important such as, glass, lead, paints, paper, and the most important tea. This led the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American government because the colonists didn't want to listen to Great Britain and pay taxes on the most valuable things they use, especially tea. Also because not many people would probably be able to afford it and tea was an everyday thing and putting the tax on it would make colonists in debt over tea, which means they probably wouldn't buy it.
Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre that occurred on March 5, 1770 was a major event that led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American government. On March 5, 1770 protesters provoked British soldiers which lead to them firing their guns into the crowd and killing five people. This led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American government because it fires them up even more because first they put taxes on them and start killing them. Also because what happens makes the colonist want the desire for independence because they don’t want want to be taxed and then killed, they want to make rules for themselves and have choices of what happens and how to deal with a situation.
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party that occurred on December 16, 1773 was a major event that led to the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American Government. The Boston Tea Party was a protest that was performed by the colonist of the colonies because of the new taxes on materials, such as tea. On December 16, 1773 many colonists dressed up as Native Americans and opened the barrels of tea and dumped them overboard which ruined the tea because it was salt water. This led to the colonie declaring independence from Great Britain and the formation of American government because they were one step closer to freedom and having a say in what and how they should be controlled. Also because it gave them more of a desire for their own government and independence because they were becoming closer and closer.
The Articles of Confederation (Concepts)
First established government
One branch of federal government: legislature, which means no executive or judicial
The legislative branch was unicameral, one vote per state, delegates chosen by states and 9 out of the 13 states had to approve a presentation before action (proposal) before it became a law.
States have ultimate authority

This means that the King tells the colonies that he has to approve of all their laws, but when they send him the laws he doesn’t do anything. Because of this colonies declared Independece because they want a more stable government and they want laws to be approved.
Rationale and Explanation
"For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world"
This means that the King was not letting the colonies trade with any other country than England. Because of this colonies declare Independece because they want to trade and they are sick of not being able to do things (too controled).
"For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent"
This means that the King is making taxes without telling the colonies or asking them if it is okay (for their approval). Because of this the colonies declared Independece because they didn't like not communicating and having to do everything, even if they do not want too.
"He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us."
This means that the King has refused to protect colonists from foreign aggression on their land. Because of this the colonies declared Independce because they wanted to have protection, especialy from wars that could end up bad.
"For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury."
This means that the King was denying those who were convicted of crimes jury trials under matter that the colonists felt were appropriate: that all trials would be fair and would have safeguards and legal procedure, also that trials would be determined by fair juries who looked at the situation without discrimination but equal. Because of this the colonies declared Independece because they wanted fair trials under people who looked at siuations appropriately.
"He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good."
This means that the King has refused to enforce laws that would help the people, acting like a dictator. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted the government to be fair and not too much power given to the leader. Also because they wanted laws, especially laws that would help people, passed.
"He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures."
This means that the King made it difficult for colonists to participate in governance. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted things especially governmenatl situations to be easily to attend and make decsions throughly.
"He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers."
This means that the King has refused laws to be passed that setup judiciary powers. Because of this colonies declared Independence becaue they wanted a judicial branch and laws for it to succed to be passed.
"He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries."
This means that the King denied judges independence to make decisions based off the law and the case presented before them. Because of this the colonies declared Independene because they wanted trials to be fair and not just what the leader wants , but what is good for the public in general.
"He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures."
This means that the King forced persons to occupy military when not at war without approval of the colonists lawmakers and decision makers (legislature). Because of
this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted to approve of things
and because they wanted control of military and if it is presemt when war isn't.
"He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance."
This means that the King created many new authority figures and sent many to intimidate the colonists and use their resources (not helpful). Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted the people, who are supposed to be protecting them, actually protecting them and taking in consider of them.
"For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments."
This basically means that the King took away the colonists protection and balance in their government and power. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they want protection and balance from and in their government.
"He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power."
This means that the military is stronger than the people and that makes an opportunity for the military oppress the people. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they didn't want their military too strong and have it have the opportunity to opress the people.
"He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people."
This basically means (“no taxation without representation”) that the King took away the colonies representation so that he can invade their rights/ try to destroy them. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted their rights to be protected and they felt very strong about teir representation.
"For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever."
This means that the King took away the colonies lawmakers, and making/changing the laws himself, in favor of him and not the people. Because of this the colonies declared Independence because they wanted lawmakers making the laws for the good of the people and because they wanted the lawmakers to be presnet at all times
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