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In December 1, 1930, a thermal inversion occurred.
In a span of 2 days, at least 60 people died. The elderly with heart and respiratory ailments suffered the highest death rate Donora, Pennsylvania, 1948 Resembles the 1930 disaster.The pollutants came mainly from a zinc-manufacturing plant and a huge iron and steel millOccurred in October 26, 1948Out of the 14,000 population, 6,063 fell ill. THe smog finally lifted after 5days, 17 died and 4 more died on Christmas eve Los Angeles, California "smog", 1943-1944 Happened during a dry and sunny weather.
The pollutants were unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen from cars, which are acted upon by the sunlight to produce more toxic gases(photochemical smog) The London Smog of 1952 Worst case of air pollution tragedy in the history
On Thursday, December 4,1952, a temperature inversion occurred in the Valley of the Thames River.
Lasted for 4 days.
Final total death count 8,000. New York City, 1966 November 24, 1966, New York City experienced an hourly peak average of 0.97mg/l of sulfur dioxide. Kawasaki, Japan, 1970 Sulfur dioxide is the main pollutant in the incident in Japan which came from sintering plants.
Increased incidents of respiratory ailments like asthma Chernobyl Accident of 1986 Worst in the history of nuclear power generation.
The power plant released a large amount of radioactive substances into the atmosphere where it was carried great distances away.
Caused the immediate death of more than 30 people- two from the blast and fire and 29 from the exposure to radiation. about 200 more people contracted serious radiation sickness. Europe's Acid Rains that Deface cities and destroy forests Destruction are caused by factories and coal mines of Upper Silesia that spew out staggering amount of pollution.
In Athens, the most beautiful building in the world, the Parthenon, is similarly being eaten by air pollution.
Forests have been also damaged by acid rain, and atleast 445,000 acres are affected. What is Air Pollution? Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. Origins of the Atmosphere
Scientist believed that the atmosphere was formed from escaped gases which escaped from the interior of the earth
Oxygen was formed by the photodecomposition of water and the small amount of photosynthesis from simple plant life A sufficient amount of oxygen eventually accumulated to begin the formation of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere
The development of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere led to the expansion of life, especially in land.
Nitrogen in the atmosphere came from the earth's interior and accumulated steadily until it reached its present level. Air Pollutants: Their Sources and Effects on Man's Health Gaseous Air Pollutants 1. Carbon Oxides
Carbon dioxide,is a pollutant. The reason for this is the great quantity of the gas being produced and released ti the air daily and the consequences of its tremendous presence in the air
Carbon monoxide is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon and of carbon compounds, though colorless, odorless and nonirritating it's very toxic. 2. Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are introduced into the air primarily by automobile exhaust. Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels results into hydrocarbon emission. Evaporation of solvents release hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons, when regularly inhaled and ingested are harmful to the liver 3. Sulfur Compounds
Sulfur dioxide is the most notable air pollutant. High sulfur dioxide concentration released into the atmosphere was the cause of major air pollution disaster in large cities like London.
Sulfur trioxide is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of sulfur dioxide under the influence of sunlight.
Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid. Carried up by water vapor then falls down as acid rain destroying living tissues,defaces buildings etc.
Hyrogen sulfide has the odor of rotten eggs. Its occurrences is mostly associated with geothermal energy production and decomposing organic matter 4. Nitrogen Compounds
Nitrogen oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide are both produced by any combustion process that occurs in air. The automobile is again a significant source of nitrogen oxides
The effects of Nitrogen dioxide ranges from unpleasant odor and mild irritation to serious lung congestion to death.
Nitrogen dioxide is also a key substance in the formation of smog 5. Ozone and Oxidants
Ozone is considered toxic in higher concentrations. When ozone concentration in air is about 1mg/liter, it can cause headaches and severe irritation of the eyes, upper respiratory system and lungs.
Oxidants are produced by the reactions of hydrocarbons and other organic vapors with oxides of the atmospheres of sunny urban areas with considerable automobile traffic
Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN is an oxidant and is a component of smog 6. Hydrogen Fluoride
Originates from various specific industrial operations, such as aluminum smeltering.
When hydrogen fluoride comes in contact with any part of the body, it can cause lesions which heal poorly and can become gangrenous Particulate Pollutants Organic Particles
Organic pollutants include pollen grains, microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi,molds, or spores and insects or parts of insects such as hairs and wings Inorganic Particles Comprise a vast array of materials, some from natural sources and others man-made. Consist mostly of carbon and include various carcinogenic compounds Effects of Air Pollution on the Atmosphere Let us help reduce air pollution.
Start with yourself