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Presentation of phonology

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on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of Presentation of phonology

Presentation of phonology
PHONOLOGY
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Manner of articulation
•Stop
:
an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion (blocking) of the oral vocal tract, and no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d ɡ/ (voiced).
Nasal:
a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose.
Fricative:
sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. Examples include English /f, s/ (voiceless), /v, z/ (voiced), etc.
PLACES OF ARTICULATION
Bilabial
: The point of maximum constriction is made by the coming together of the two lips.

Labiodental
: The lower lip articulates with the upper teeth.
Dental
:
The tip of the tongue articulates with the back or bottom of the top teeth.
Alveolar:
T
he tip or the blade of the tongue articulates with the forward part of the alveolar ridge. A sound made with the tip of the tongue here is an apico-alveolar sound; one made with the blade, a lamino-alveolar.

Postalveolar:

The tip or the blade of the tongue articulates with the back area of the alveolar ridge.
Palatal:

The front of the tongue articulates with the domed part of the hard palate.

Velar:
The back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate.
Uvular:

The back of the tongue articulates with the very back of the soft palate, including the uvula.
Pharyngeal:

The pharynx is constricted by the faucal pillars moving together (lateral compression) and, possibly, by the larynx being raised.
Glottal:

The vocal folds are brought together; in some cases, the function of the vocal folds can be part of articulation as well as phonation, as in the case of [ ] and [h] in many languages.

Sibilants:
are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound.
Lateral
: fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue.
Affricate
: which begins like a stop, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own.
Flap:
often called a tap, is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap [ɾ] in North American and Australian English.
Trill:
in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place, and the airstream causes it to vibrate. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill.

Approximant
: where there is very little obstruction. Examples include English /w/ and /r/.
Lateral approximants:
usually shortened to lateral, are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue.
Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced. The term, however, is used to refer to two separate concepts. Voicing can refer to the articulatory process in which the vocal cords vibrate. This is its primary use in phonetics to describe phones, which are particular speech sounds.
VOICING.


VOCAL TRACT
The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered.
In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the esophagus, and the beak. In mammalsit consists of the laryngeal cavity, the pharynx, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity

A phoneme is a basic unit of a language's phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words or morphemes. The phoneme can be described as "The smallest contrastive linguistic unit which may bring about a change of meaning".
PHONEMES
YOUR VOCAL TRACT
GLOSSARY
Purpose
:
Spanish:
adrede - aposta - conseguir - destino - efecto - ex profeso - expresa - expreso - fin - finalidad - idea - intención - intencionadamente - lograr - objeto - polivalente - propósito
Chosen
.
Spanish:
caerse - escogida - escogido

Aware
':
Spanish:
conciencia - concienciar - concienciarse - consciente - convenir - enterada - enterado - mentalizar - mentalizarse - sensibilizar
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