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“The Short Story and Its Elements”
Transcript of “The Short Story and Its Elements”
“The Short Story and Its Elements”
What is Short Story?
- is a piece of fiction that has a limited number of words, only a few characters and one theme.
- is how the author arranges events to develop his or her basic idea.
- It is the sequence of events in a story or play.
- is essential to plot.
- It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.
- Conflict is not merely limited to open arguments, rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character.
Point of View
- as the angle or perspective from which the story is told.
a) place – geographical location.
b) time – When is the story taking place?
c) weather conditions – is it rainy, sunny, cloudy, etc?
d) social condition – what is the daily life of the character like?
e) mood or atmosphere- What feeling is created at the beginning of the story?
The five essential parts of plot:
Three-fold phenomenon of climax:
1) The main character receives new information
2) Accepts this information
3) Acts on this information
Two types of conflict:
- a struggle with a force outside one's self.
- a struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc.
Four kinds of conflict:
a. Man vs. Man (physical)
- The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men.
b. Man vs. Circumstances (classical)
- The leading character struggles the forces of nature.
c. Man vs. Society (social)
- The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people.
d. Man vs. Himself (psychological)
- The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
is the central to the story with all major events having some importance to this character - he/she.
is the person (or force) that opposes the main character.
- Characters are convincing if they are:
consistent, motivated, and life-like.
Meaning it resemble real people.
– round, many sided and complex personalities.
-dynamic many-sided personalities that change, for better or worse, by the end of the story.
- stereotypes, having one or two characteristics that never change that are emphasized e.g. brilliant detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc.
a. Innocent Eye
- The story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult).
b. Stream of Consciousness
- The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions.
c. First Person
– The story is told by the protagonist or another character that interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using first person pronouns I, me, we, etc).
– the author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view.
- He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivation of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses.
Two main types of omniscient point of view:
1. Omniscient Limited
– The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc).
2. Omniscient Objective
- The author tells the story in the third person. It appears as though a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard.
- the theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight.
- the theme may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view of human nature.
Some simple examples of common themes from literature, TV and Film are:
1. Things are not always as they appear to be.
2. Love is blind.
3. Believe in yourself.
4. People are afraid of change.
5. Don’t judge a book by its cover.
- is the time and location in which a story takes place.
- defines into two meanings:
The person in a work of fiction -
the Antagonist and Protagonist
The characteristics of a person.
The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed.
- This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed.
- This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story.
- The events and complications begin to resolve themselves.
- This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.