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UNIT 2 (PREZI 1): GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION AND DESIGN

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Moisés Llorente Santos

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of UNIT 2 (PREZI 1): GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION AND DESIGN

UNIT 2: GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION AND DESIGN
3º ESO
TEACHER: MOISÉS LLORENTE

unit objectives:
1. Understanding the importance of standarisation.
2. learning how to apply a scale (up and down) to a drawing.
3. representing objects in the dihedral system (views).
4. representing objects in perspective (cavalier and isometric).
5. dimensioning objects following the standars.
6. using 2d and 3d computer drawing tools.
scales
elevations
perspectives
dimensioning
mongge
2d and 3d editors
standarisation
tECHNICAL DRAWING MUST BE A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE.
PEOPLE ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD SHOULD BE ABLE TO INTERPRET OUR DRAWINGS OR SKETCHES, SO WE NEED TO USE COMMON SYMBOLS.
THANKS TO STANDARISATION, OTHER PEOPLE WILL BE ABLE TO BUILD THE OBJECT WE HAVE DESIGNED WITHOUT EXPLANATIONS.
DEFINITION:
STANDARISATION IS THE SET OF STANDARS THAT REGULATES EVERY ELEMENT OF TECHNICAL DRAWING (FORMATS, LETTERING, DIMENSIONING AND SYMBOLS)
THESE STANDARS ARE AGREED BY AGENCIES.
IN SPAIN, THIS AGENCY IS CALLED AENOR (ASOCIACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DE NORMALIZACIÓN)
STANDARD ELEMENTS IN TECHNICAL DRAWING:
USEFUL CONVENTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDIG DRAWINGS BETTER
1. STANDARDISED SCALES
2. STANDARDISED LINES
3. STANDARDISED DIMENSIONING
1. STANDARDISED SCALES
A
SCALE
IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF THE DRAWING AND THE ACTUAL (REAL) SIZE OF THE OBJECT.

IT MEANS... "HOW MANY TIMES IS THE DRAWING BIGGER OR SMALLER THAN THE OBJECT IN THE REAL LIFE?"
SCALE =
DRAWING
REAL LIFE
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF SCALES:
1. SCALING DOWN:
THE SIZE OF THE DRAWING IS SMALLER THAN THE OBJECT IN REAL LIFE
2. FULL SCALE:
THE SIZE OF THE DRAWING IS EQUAL TO THE OBJECT IN REAL LIFE (1:1).
3. SCALING UP:
THE SIZE OF THE DRAWING IS BIGGER THAN THE OBJECT IN REAL LIFE
SCALLING DOWN
WE SCALE DOWN TO REPRESENT INSTALLATIONS AND MAPS
TYPICAL SCALES TO SCALE DOWN:
INSTALLATIONS:
1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200
TOPOGRAPHY(MAPS):
1:100, 1:200, 1: 1000, 1:5000, 1:10000, 1:50000...
SCALLING UP
WE SCALE UP TO REPRESENT SMALL OBJECTS IN A DRAWING
TYPICAL SCALES WHEN SCALING UP:
2:1, 5:1, 10:1 AND 20:1
example:
calculate the dimensions we have to use to draw a football field (100 x 70 m) if we use a scale of 1:1000
s =
d
r
SCALE =
DRAWING
REAL LIFE
=
1
1000
=
1
1000
d
r
1. calculate the size in the drawing of the long line:
1
1000
=
d
r
1
1000
=
d
100
d = 10 cm
2. calculate the size in the drawing of the short line:
1
1000
=
d
r
1
1000
=
d
70
d = 7 cm
10 cm
7 cm
scale 1:1000
exercise:
using a graph (squared) paper, draw an object following the next instructions...
1. COUNT 6 SQUARES RIGHT AND THREE SQUARES DOWN FROM THE TOP LEFT CORNER OF THE SQUARED PAPER AND DRAW A POINT. PUT YOUR PEN ON THAT POINT.

2. FROM THERE, START DRAWING LINES FOLLOWING THE NEXT INSTRUCTIONS:
- THREE SQUARES RIGHT, THREE DOWN, FOUR RIGHT, TWO DOWN, ONE LEFT, ONE DOWN, SIXT LEFT, ONE UP, ONE LEFT, ONE UP, ONE RIGHT, FOUR UP.

3. SCALE DOWN THE OBJECT USING A 1:2 SCALE.

4. SCALE UP THE OBJECT USING A 2:1 SCALE.
2. standardised lines
these are the most commonly used:
THICK (HEAVY) LINE: VISIBLE LINES.
THIN (FINE) LINE: DIMENSION LINES AND AXIS.
FINE DASH-DOTTED LINE: CENTRE LINES.
FINE DASHED LINE: HIDDEN LINES.
3. DIMENSION LINES
WHEN WE DIMENSION A FIGURE, WE INDICATE ON THE DRAWING THE REAL MEASUREMENTS THAT ARE NEEDED TO DEFINE IT.
dimension line
measurement
auxiliary lines
dimensioning activity
open your book on page 37 and take a look to the dimensioning examples you have on the top part of the page. notice that some of them are not correct.
using squared paper, copy the following figure and dimension it following the rules you read before. ask your teacher if you don't understand any of them. each square is
5 MM
LONG.
you'll get 5 points per each dimension line you draw correctly. but... you'll lose 5 points pear each one you fail.
REPRESENTATING OBJECTS IN THE DIHEDRICAL SYSTEM. VIEWS
VIEWS IN THE DIHEDRICAL SYSTEM ARE
PROJECTIONS
the effect shown in the drawing is similar to the shadows projected into the walls if you illuminate the object with a torch
views used to represent an object
front view
left side
view
right side
view
overhead view
example 1
example 2
example 3
exercise to practise: draw the three main views of the following object
representing objects in perspective
we use perspective to view an object in three dimensions (3d)

the most common perspectives are:


cavalier perspective
isometric perspective
CAVALIER PERSPECTIVE
ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE
CAVALIER
ISOMETRIC
WHICH IS THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CAVALIER AND ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE?
CAVALIER PERSPECTIVE:
X AND Z AXES ARE DRAWN WITH A 90º ANGLE
Z
X
90º
Y AXIS IS DRAWN AT A 135º FROM THE OTHER TWO.
Y
135º
135º
ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE:
ALL THE AXIS ARE SEPARATED BY THE SAME ANGLE (120º)
Z
X
Y
120º
120º
120º
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