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Carl Jung's Archetypes
Transcript of Carl Jung's Archetypes
Archetypes Who Was Carl Jung? Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875 in the town of Kesswil, Switzerland
He met Sigmund Freud in 1907, and Jung soon became Freud's younger colleague. However, they had conflicting viewpoints on different ideas.
After World War I, Jung began to analyze his own dreams as well as travel to many locations in the world.
From these experiences, he formed the theory of the collective unconscious based on Freud's theory of the personal unconscious (Boeree). The Collective Unconscious Jung proposed the theory of the collective unconscious, which he described as a collection of primordial archetypes that is universal to all people and acquired by natural inheritance.
He drew similarities between his theory and that of instincts.
While the personal unconscious consists of contents that were once conscious, the collective unconscious was never consciously uncovered nor personally acquired.
The only way to prove the existence of the collective unconscious was to examine its manifestations of its archetypes (Jung, "Concept of the Collective Unconscious" 42-53). Image: Artzybasheff The Personal Unconscious Freud proposed the theory of the personal unconscious, which is a collection of drives, or complexes, that were gained through past experiences (Jung, "Concept of the Collective Unconscious" 42-53).
These were repressed or forgotten, possibly because they were rejected by society. However, these still do influence human behavior and actions, though the people are unaware (Clarke). ? Images: Prezi Clipart Jung pointed out that Freud's theory failed to explain how different people would react in a similar fashion given the same stimuli.
Jung noted that a schizophrenic patient would have as similar ritualistic behavior towards the sun as that of an ancient culture (Jung, "Concept of the Collective Unconscious" 42-53). Archetypes Image: Guiney Image: Microsoft Clipart The ego is the conscious part of the psyche (Boeree). Archetypes are the primordial contents of the collective unconscious. They have been accumulated since the beginning of human existence, and they are continuously passed down through generations (Clarke).
People are compelled to behave in certain ways, similar to instincts. Resistance to these archetypes may lead to neurosis.
Archetypes exist for every recurring situation of life (Jung, "Concept of the Collective Unconscious" 42-53). Archetypes may manifest themselves through myths, fairy tales, dreams, and delusions.
Individual actions will only reflect the unconscious archetypes (Clarke). The Self The self unifies all opposites and defines a unique personality.
Jung stated that the goal of life was to achieve one's self, which would transcend all other conflicts (Boeree). The Shadow The shadow comes from desires connected to primitive concerns.
It lies deep within one's psyche, often because social norms have rejected these animal-like tendencies.
Symbols may include dragons, demons, the snake, or other monsters (Boeree). Image: Microsoft Clipart The Persona The persona is one's presentation of him or herself to the public, often in adherence to society.
Because accepted norms may conflict with basic human desires, the persona may be very different from the collective unconscious (Boeree). The Anima and Animus The persona also includes male or female roles that society has defined. However, the traits of the other gender still exist in the psyche, though they are not developed.
The anima is the female aspect in men, while the animus is the male aspect in men.
Communicating and connecting with one's anima or animus is essential for completing one's self.
Symbols for the anima may include young, spontaneous women, while symbols for the animus may include wise, rational men (Boree). Image: Microsoft Clipart The Mother From the moment they are born, infants will seek those who fit the archetype of the mother imbedded in their collective unconscious (Boeree).
If a mother or other figure fails satisfy this archetype, the person may unconsciously seek other things to satisfy this demand (Jung, "Aspects of the Mother Archetype Conclusion" 101-110).
The mother archetype may be symbolized by mothers or other mother-figures, fertility goddesses, and earth mothers. It may also manifest itself in more abstract ideas such as sympathy, growth, and caring as well as secrets, darkness, and poison (Jung, "Aspects of the Mother Archetype" 81-84). Image: Galanda The Child The child archetype stems from more primitive areas of the collective unconscious.
It is often suppressed by more modern needs and societal norms (Jung, "The Child Archetype" 162-164).
The archetype may manifest itself as the Christ child or other child-figures, and it may represent rebirth, salvation, and the future (Beoree). The Spirit The archetype of the spirit seems to be external to the human psyche, though it may just be human desire for a spiritual connection.
The spirit has both positive and negative aspects, as seen in its manifestations in the Christian God and Devil (Jung, "Spirit in Fairytales; Concerning the Word" 207-214).
Animals may also represent the spirit archetype (Jung, "Spirit in Fairtales; Theriomorphic Spirit" 230-242). Archetypes in Literature Jung also applied his study of archetypes to myths, where the collective unconscious would surface and become a part of the conscious.
Myths allow humans to not only experience the world around them, but also to assimilate it with their unconscious desires (Clarke).
Joseph Campbell also studied Carl Jung's ideas and the impact of archetypes on myths and other forms of story-telling.
Campbell said myths allow humans to sever their juvenile desires and become a part of society. However, myths would also allow people to reconcile their unconscious desires with their cultures (Campbell 59-60). Archetypes in literature are recurring elements that often coincide with archetypes of the collective unconscious (D'Amico).
Eve or Mary - the mother
The snake - the shadow
God or the Devil - the spirit
The archetype of the hero may represent people's egos and seek to defeat the shadow, thus ignoring the collective unconscious in the process. Other characters resemble other archetypes as well (Boeree). Image: Microsoft Clipart Death and Rebirth Light v. Darkness Haven v. Wilderness The Un-healable Wound The Mentor Loyal Allies The Outcast The Maiden The Creature of Nightmare The Initiates Fire v. Ice The Ritual The Fall Water Colors The Wise Old Man The Seasons The Trickster Gardens The Great Fish Desert The Sun and the Moon The Scapegoat Parent-Child Conflict Animals Supernatural Intervention The Magic Weapon Nature v. Mechanistic World Quest The Journey The Initiation The Jokester The Threshold Guardian Rivers The Ocean/Sea The Earth Mother The Unfaithful Wife (D'Amico) Images: Microsoft Clipart