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Types of Instructional Materials

Gosh! Thank You Lord! :) huh! The longest prezi presentation I have made.

Charlene Buno

on 9 February 2014

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Transcript of Types of Instructional Materials

Types of Instructional Materials
2. Graphic Materials
From the Greek word
meaning “to write”, “to draw” or “to represent by lines”

Present summarized information through drawings, words, pictures and symbols

Generally abstract
1. Printed Materials
A large portion of all teaching aids commonly used by teachers
Types of Printed Materials:
A. Textbooks
B. Supplementary Materials
A. Textbooks
A systematic arrangement of subject matter designed to assist the instructor in teaching a particular content to students at a specific grade/year level.
> Have long been the foundation of classroom

> Have been the companions of teachers

> Commonly used in the presentation of content
information in any subject
B. Supplementary materials
Best sources of idea and information, particularly on current topics, otherwise not available from textbooks.
> used by students to augment the ideas by the teacher
or found in other forms of media

Pamphlets and journals:
used to locate information
on topics not covered in textbooks

> It can be used by students who prefer to study
Types of Graphic Materials
A. Drawings &
B. Charts
C. Diagrams
D. Graphs
E. Posters
F. Cartoons & Strip
G. Maps & Globes
A. Drawings &
Non-photographic representations of reality

Can be in black or white or in full color
1. Readily available

2. adaptable in any lighted environment.

3. Handy

4. Easy to use

5. Allow learners to practice skills (worksheets)
1. poor readers may not benefit

2. Reduced to mere memorization aids.

3. do not assure interactivity.

4. Teacher-pupil learning are fit into the organization of textbooks.

5. open to errors.
Functions of Illustrations:

1. Gives faces to characters in a story
2. Display an item described in a textbook
3. Make reader laugh or smile
1. Easily prepared

2. Easy to utilize

3. Could be prepared ahead of time

4. Less detailed so learners easily understand their message

1. Subject to misinterpretations

2. Need technical expertise in drawing to produce good illustrations

B. Charts
Present relationships such as chronologies, quantities and hierarchies

Present a combination of pictorial, graphic, numeral or verbal materials
Types of Charts:
1. Flow Chart:
show a sequence or flow of a process
2. Classification Charts:
classification or categorization of objects or events
3. Tabular Charts:
usually numerical and are represented in columns
4. Organizational charts:
show chain of command in an organization or department; lines show the interrelationship of data
5. Stream or tree charts:
relationship of data shown in a hierarchy
6. Timeline charts:
illustrate the chronological relationship between events
1. Present summaries of information

2. Can be easily made by students

3. Can be moved from one place to another

1. Can’t show motion

2. Can be outdated

C. Diagrams
Consist of lines and symbols that show the relationships or key features of a process, an object or an area

Also considered as charts; abstract
So what is the difference between a
and a
Demonstrate or explain how something works.
Clarify the relationship between the parts of a whole
Present information in tabular or graphic format.
Plot specific information.
1. Venn Diagram:
shows areas of overlap between elements
2. Cycle Diagram:
shows a process with a continuous cycle
3. Radial Diagram:
shows relationships of a core element
4. Pyramid Diagram
shows foundation-based relationships
5. Target Diagram
shows steps toward a goal
D. Graphs
Represent numerical data

Illustrate relationships among units of data

Could be produced from tabular charts
Types of Graphs
1. Show relationships of large amount of data in a condensed form like charts

2. Easy to use

1. Ideas rely heavily on symbolic means, hence, could be difficult to understand

2. Bar Graphs:
consist of bars (either horizontal or vertical) useful in presenting comparisons of data
1. Line Graph:
used in plotting relationships between changes in a set of data over a period of time
3. Circle or Pie Graphs
used to show how a whole is divided into parts and the relationship of the parts
4. Picture Graphs or Pictographs
use pictures to represent and compare numerical data instead of bars or lines
1. Facilitate understanding through summarized data

2. More appealing than tables

1. Easily misinterpreted

2. Could be uninteresting for some students because it employs numerical data

E. Posters
Materials which combine images, lines, colors, and words

catch viewer’s attention to brief, persuasive message

good poster: simple, attractive and convey message quickly
1. Easily prepared

2. Easily convey a message

3. Catch attention

1. Can portray different interpretations

F. Cartoons & Strip Drawings
Colorful line drawings with exaggerated features or symbols that provide humor or satire (to ridicule, to mock, humor)

Usually appear in newspapers, periodicals & textbooks
Intended to entertain to make important social and political comments

Strip drawings: used to aroused interest
1. Easily read & understood; encourages reading

2. Satisfy child’s idea of art

3. Contain illustrations

1. There is a tendency to focus only on the colorful drawings rather than on the words accompanying them

2. Usually exaggerated= lead to misinterpretations

G. Maps & Globes

represent portion of the Earth’s surface


spherical model of the Earth; 3D
Classification of Maps
Intended to entertain to make important social and political comments

Strip drawings: used to aroused interest
1. Physical Map:
emphasize terrain (land, ground) and topographical concepts
2. Political Maps:
emphasize on man-made phenomena such as state, city, provincial boundaries, railroads and government buildings
3. Special purpose Maps
used for peculiar purpose like presenting amount of rainfall, population distribution and travel routes
Classification of Globes
1. Political Globes:
shows location and boundaries of cities, provinces and other man-made structures
2. Physical- Political Globes
emphasize land elevations and ocean depths
3. Special purpose Globes
constructed for specific purposes such as satellite globes, celestial globes and physical relief globes
1. Maps & globes provide concrete visualization of the features of the Earth

2. Provide opportunities to learn about people, geographical influences and places

1. Maps & globes require a higher level of background information or experience
3. Pictorial Media
Visual or Pictorial Media are often considered as “universal language”

Pictures: “worth a thousand words"
Types of Pictorial Media:

1. Still Pictures
2. Photographs
3. Flash Cards
A. Still Pictures
Help illustrate and teach specific lesson topics,

Help learners recall information & visually explained information that would be difficult to convey using only verbal or written terms.
4 Ways Pictures are Used:

1. Decoration
2. Representation
3. Interpretation
4. Transformation
1. Provides more realistic interpretation

2. Well-chosen picture convey tremendous information

3. Motivate students and help relate an action or depict a story

4. Can be used in any lighted environment

5. Easy to use

1. Generally small

2. Often lead to misinterpretation of size and perspective

3. Easily torn and lost

4. Cannot depict totality of message

B. Photographs
Pictures which are produced by the 35 mm still camera or the digital camera

Appear in black & white or in full color
1. Material could easily capture

2. Easily produce
1. Generally small like pictures: fail to present scale size & perspective

2. Distortion of image
C. Flash Cards
Valuable materials for drill activities particularly in the teaching Math, English & Filipino
1. Important in fixing skills and automatizing responses of students

2. Easily made and use
1. Not seen by entire class if it is small

2. If flashing is too snappy: students have difficulty in recognizing
4. Audio Media
Sounds transmitted, purchased or received through high fidelity waves which are heard through audio equipment

Used in speech rehearsals, drama, musical & dance presentations, radio & TV broadcasting etc.
Types of Audio Media
A. Radio & Broadcasts
Educational materials which could be heard from the radio

Can be done live or taped

Can be school broadcast or general broadcast
1. Can be used anywhere, with or without electricity

2. Best means of bringing up-to-date news

3. Provide examples of good and bad speech

4. Adaptable to small or large audiences
1. One-way communication medium only

2. Programs move at constant speed & cannot conduct drills

3. Teachers cannot control the timing of “on-schedule” radio programs

4. The use of radio demand training in listening skills
B. Recordings
Educational materials which could be heard from the radio
2 Types of Recordings
1. Audio discs
2. Audiotapes
C. Language Laboratory
A place where students can listen and study sounds and words of a language using audiotapes and playback equipment
2 Types of Recordings
Come in 3 forms:

Student passively listen to audio materials

Students are provided self-monitors

Students are provided with a tape recorder, video monitor or computer
1. Can capture & store the original sound

2. Easily operated

3. Duplication of audiotapes is easy

4. Ideal for learning languages

5. Can be used for small or big groups

1. Recordings can be easily erased by accident

2. Appeal only to the sense of hearing

3. Background noises may be included while recording

1. Encourage positive attitudes toward learning a foreign language

2. Speech can be easily corrected

3. Provide hands-on opportunities for actual application of communication skills

1. Very complex to manage

2. Costly

3. Occupy a large space

5. Projected Media
Refers to media formats in which visual and verbal images are projected or enlarged on a screen by passing strong light through a transparent material or through opaque materials.
Types of Projected Media:

A. Overhead Projection (OHP)
B. Slides
C. Opaque
D. Computer Image Projection
A. Overhead Projection
done using an overhead projector
2 Types of Recordings
Overhead Projector:

box-like device with a large stage on the top surface

light from powerful lamp inside the box is condensed by a special type of lens, known as Fresnel lens, and passes through a transparency placed on the stage

Overhead transparencies:

created from clear acetate, photographic film or plastics used for covering

1. Can be used even in normal room lighting

2. Allows presenter to have direct eye contact with audience

3. Can be adjusted for large group

4. Easily made or can be reused

5. Less costly

1. Needs much care

2. Opaque materials can’t be projected

3. Doesn’t lend itself to individual instruction

B. Slides
Small transparent photographs individually mounted for one-at-a-time projection

Slides (2x2 in.) are inserted into a slide projector

Interesting media for topics that involve places and people

2 Types of Recordings
1. Can be arranged into many different sequences

2. Portable; easily stored

3. Allow presenter to remain in front of the room

4. Can be used in individualized instruction program

5. Controlled by users

1. Becomes easily disorganized

2. Not effective in fully-lighted environment

3. May lead to jamming of slides

4. Costly

5. Outdated; replaced by CDs

6. Careless storage lead to permanent damage

C. Filmstrips
Comes in a roll of 35mm transparent film

Contain series of related still pictures which are placed in sequential order

each individual picture is called a frame

2 Types of Recordings
Frames: pictures intended for showing one at a time using a filmstrip projector
1. Provides visual stimulation & motivation for learners

2. Cheaper than slides

3. Can be presented without fear of having pictures disorganized

4. Speed of viewing can be controlled by user

5. Integrated into individualized instruction programs
1. Sequence of pictures can’t be altered

2. Less popular because of video cassettes

3. Needs much care

4. Not effective in fully lighted environment
D. Opaque
Uses nontransparent materials

Operated by directing onto a material a very strong incandescent light, which is reflected upward to strike a mirror which aims the light beam through a series of lenses onto a screen
2 Types of Recordings
1. No need to produce transparencies

2. Allows group viewing

3. There’s a wide variety of materials to be projected

1. Not effective unless room is completely darkened

2. Heavy

3. Some parts are unsafe to touch (due to heat generated by the lamp)

E. Computer Image Projection
Process of projecting computer-based materials using Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector

Projector is connected to a computer then focused to a screen
2 Types of Recordings
1. Project all which appears in a computer screen

2. Professional looking

3. Displays can be changed after or even during presentations

1. Room must be darkened

2. costly

Digital Light Processing (DLP)

Another type of projector
Clearer and more vivid pictures compared to LCD
Can be used in semi-lit room
6. Motion Media
involve the use of both auditory and visual senses at the same time

promote learning wherein motion is a necessary part of understanding

effective devices in arousing pupil’s interest
A. Educational Television (ETV)
The use of television programs in the field of education
2 Types of Recordings
Frames: pictures intended for showing one at a time using a filmstrip projector
1. Open broadcast television

telecast over the air & seen by anyone
2. Close-circuit television (CCTV)

A system which limits distribution of an image to those receivers which are directly connected to an origination point
3. Video Recordings

Refer to electronic recordings of ETV programs through videotapes or videodiscs

Can be played back using VHS
3 Methods of Distributing ETV Programs
1. Color & sharpness of image can stimulate learners effectively

2. Serve a large number of audiences

3. Teachers can also learn while viewing ETV programs

1. One-way communication medium

2. Programming is not controlled by teachers

3. Maintenance can be costly

B. Video
From Latin word
meaning ‘I see’

Display of recorded pictures on a television-type screen

Any media format that employs a cathode-ray screen to present a picture

2 Types of Recordings
1. Provide a bridge between the abstract world of textbook and everyday reality

2. Easily produced

3. Can serve big number of audiences

4. Allows repeated viewing

1. Video production can be costly

2. Needs technical expertise

C. Film/ Motion Pictures
Consist of a series of still pictures that ‘move’ past the projector light to create the illusion of motion

Persistence of vision: the illusion created by the projector

2 Types of Recordings
1. Motivate students

2. Adaptable to small & large groups

3. Inexpensive

4. Require little reading skills

1. Viewing equipment could be expensive for some school

2. Operational problems could arise during the use of the viewing equipment

Types of Motion Media:

A. Educational Television (ETV)
B. Video
C. Film/ Motion Pictures
7. Display Media
Types of Display Media:

A. Exhibits
B. Chalkboard/ Blackboard
C. Multi-purpose Board
D. Bulletin Boards
A. Exhibits
Displays of various objects designed to form an integrated whole for instructional purposes

Feature various forms of visual media, models and real objects

Types of Exhibits
1. Can be used to reproduce scenes from the past or depict scenes in the future

1. Demand enough space in a room

2. Takes a lot of time

1. Displays

An array of objects, visuals, and printed materials

Include descriptive information about the objects or visual shown
2. Dioramas

From the Greek words di meaning ‘through’ and orama meaning ‘a sight’

Diorama literally means ‘to see through’

Consist of 3D foreground, usually models of people, animals, etc.

Also called as ‘exhibits in a box’
B. Chalkboard
Formerly known as blackboards

Most familiar device used by teachers and students to present data

Useful aids for presenting and explaining ideas

2 Types of Recordings
C. Multi-Purpose Board
Also known as whiteboards or marker boards

Requires a special erasable marker rather than chalk

Used for many purposes
2 Types of Recordings
D. Bulletin Boards
Present brief news announcements of urgent interest posted for public notice

Can also serve as instructional aids

Provide decoration and motivation

Serve as motivating factor when student works are displayed
2 Types of Recordings
Used to demonstrate processes and principles

Common classroom item
1. Readily available

2. Inexpensive

3. Can accommodate so much writing

4. Attention of class can easily be held
1. Writings are only limited for a day’s use

2. Dusty

3. May not always be seen by everyone in class
Suitable for projection of slides, films and overhead transparencies

Some can be used as magnetic board
1. Share most of the advantages with chalkboards

2. Dustless

3. Preferred for rooms with computers
1. Maintenance for markers

2. Scent of markers could irritate some people
1. Lend visual stimulation

2. Provide students with additional learning
3. Motivate students

4. Add to an effective classroom atmosphere
1. Materials easily fade or fall down

2. Tend to be overcrowded
3. Time-consuming and expensive
Submitted to:

Ms. Lopez
Reported by:

Module 4:
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