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Animal Nutrition

Quite a lengthy summary of an IGCSE Biology chapter, Animal Nutrition.
by

Iddy Cvs

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Animal Nutrition

Animal
Nutrition

by: Iddy Chimvises
IGCSE Biology
Animals
need
food
made
by
Plants
the food that animals eat everyday is their
DIET
To be considered a 'Good/Balanced' Diet, the following seven nutrients must be included in their appropriate amounts and proportions:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Water
Vitamins
Minerals
Fibre
Balanced
Diet
Provides the right amount of energy
A
But...
Energy requirement will depend
on the individuals' state
From Food
Too much = stored as Fat
Too little = feel tired
Vitamins :
Minerals :
Organic substances
Inorganic substances
They are both required in small amounts
YET,
if Vitamins and Minerals are not enough =
Deficiency Disease
Lacking in any of the nutrients
would result to the
body not functioning properly
Fibre
Fibres
> Less digestible, hard food (usually plant origin)
that helps the break down, or digest other foods
Unbalanced
Health problems
Coronary heart disease
Heart attacks
Strokes
Diabetes
& more!
Diet
Starvation
SOLUTION..?
well-balanced meals
regular exercise
NO food
and
Malnutrition
Lacking a balanced diet
HUMAN
DIGESTION
What?...
The break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble molecules
using mechanical and chemical
processes

digestion by physically breaking food into smaller pieces (i.e. not using enzymes). Carried out by;

- mouth and teeth chewing food
- stomach churning food
Mechanical:
Chemical:
digestion using
enzymes
Like most animals,
Humans have a bunch of
different of acids and
enzymes in their digestive
tract to breakdown food and
be absorbed into our bodies

The secret to successful digestion is to maximize surface
area of the food for enzymes and acids to work on thoroughly
Increasing surface area
Increasing even more
surface area
enters
Ingestion
Food
Humans increase the surface area for absorption in two ways:
1. on the food itself, i.e. by chewing

2. and on our digestive system
Food
pieces
The Salivary glands starts secreting
an enzyme designed to breakdown starch and glucose (e.g. bread, rice..)
Salivary Amylase,
Proteins
Carbs
Fats
Produce saliva, which is a mixture
of water, mucus, and the enzyme
amylase
Our teeth increases the surface area of the food
which will allow amylase to act on different sides of the food pieces
mucus helps to bind the pieces together
forming
Bolus
this piece of cartilage covers the entrance to the trachea; stops food from going down into the lungs..
a tube which leads the bolus to the stomach
it goes in a movement called 'Peristalsis', which are muscles that contract and relax to move food along
Has muscular wall to churn and mix the food with its enzymes and mucus
*mechanical digestion
Pepsin is an enzyme present in the stomach
Hydrochloric acid is also present to create the acidic condition
Acidic conditions:
optimum performance of enzymes
kills unwanted bacteria/microorganisms

Pepsin is a sub-enzyme from the enzyme Protease; it helps digest proteins by breaking them down into polypeptides
The result after
all the
churning and
mixing
is CHYME (pronounced 'Kime')
Liquidity substance you'd see in.. nevermind..
Digestive System
Chyme is let out by sphincter
muscles at the bottom of the stomach
and into the 'Duodenum'
The small intestine is divided into two parts, the beginning, duodenum, and the last part, ileum

the small intestine is over
7 meters long!
but its path is narrow,
hence the 'small'
pancreatic duct
produces '
pancreatic juice
' which is then emitted into the pancreatic duct
pancreatic juice contains several enzymes:
amylase,
trypsin
lipase
breaks down starch to maltose
breaks down proteins into polypeptides
breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
The pancreatic juice also contains
sodium hydrogencarbonate
which partially neutralizes the acid of the chyme
Liver also produces another fluid which flows into the duodenum
Bile, a watery liquid, is made in the liver and stored in the

gallbladder
not an enzyme*
Bile helps to
digest fats by breaking large drops of fat into smaller one
, making it easier for
lipase
to digest them
Bile also neutralizes the acidity of the
chyme
The wall of the ileum is covered with millions of epithelial tissues with
ridges
and
folds
, giving
maximum surface area
Villi

(Goblet) Cells covering the villi produce
several enzymes:

Maltose
Sucrase
Lactase
Proteases
Lipase
Digestion
Ingestion
Absorption
Egestion
Assimilation
Key Ideas:
These enzymes complete the break down of the food substances. They are then absorbed into the bloodstream
Villi
contains
blood capillaries which transport
small molecules of
amino acids, sugars, minerals and vitamins
These substances enter via

Diffusion/ Active transport
to the
liver
Lacteal absorbs fatty acids
and glycerol
ABSORPTION
(large intestine)
Undigested
food
ASSIMILATION
EGESTION
*large, not necessarily long..
the process when food
molecules
gets into our cells after being transported
they become part of the cell
or they are used by it
Conversion of Amino acids
Conversion of Fatty acids & Glycerol
Glucose metabolism
What take place?
Fibres

Dead Cells

Bacteria

Water
Solid wastes (Faeces)
are stored
taking food into the digestive system
breaking food down into molecules small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream
taking molecules into the bloodstream. This happens almost entirely in the small intestine(ileum)
using food molecules to build new molecules in our bodies. i.e. the food molecule physically becomes part of our body.
removing unwanted food from the digestive system (having a poo!)
Full transcript