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GIS for the Fire Service

A primer for what GIS or a Geographic Information System is, why geography is important in fire service, and ways to use GIS.
by

Chris Rogers

on 18 May 2012

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Transcript of GIS for the Fire Service

Who we support
Background
Board of Directors are public safety practitioners
NAPSG was formed in 2005
3,000 public safety & GIS practitioners
800+ agencies
9 Regional Leadership Teams
National Alliance for
Public Safety GIS
(NAPSG)

National Alliance for Public Safety GIS
What is GIS?
What is GIS?
Fire Hydrant
Point
Line
Polygon
Four things to remember
Everything can be represented by a shape
Everything has a location
Things can be grouped into “like” features
Each thing has information about it
Grouping things in like categories
Layers are divided into like features
Example
Fire hydrant =hydrant
Streets don’t equal buildings
The Shape of Things
Weather information
Roads/Infrastructure
Vehicle locations
Preplan
Incident Information
Raster Imagery
Forming collections of data to create information and knowledge …
Base Maps
GIS Integrates All Types of Data
Geography is the Unique “Key”
You can locate anything!
Several different types of coordinates
Can be converted between each other
CAD or Graphic Program vs. GIS
Similar
CAD is one file with many layers
GIS is one file linked to many layers files
The two worlds are converging
Can view CAD files in GIS
Data Types
Vector Based
Discrete features, such as customer locations and data summarized by area, are usually represented using the vector model
Images
Pictures
Images representing geographic features (hill shading)
If you aren't confused yet?
Types of files
Vector
Shapefiles
Geodatabases
Tab files
Oracle
Others
Coverages
CAD Files (DWG, DGN, DXF, etc.)
Images
TIFF, JPG, BMP, MrSID
Let’s create a map the old fashion way
Map Exercise
"What do I do with this?"
Used from Big to Small
Large like flooding
Wildland Fires
Building Pre-Incident Planning
Why GIS Based Preplanning
Base data is more and more detailed
GIS software is more user friendly
Augmented by other data
Two Types of Fire Service Maps
Operations
Audience: Line Operations
Main Focus: Robust amount of information
Planning
Audience: Decision Makers
Analysis focused
Operational Examples
Paper Map Books
Incident Mapping
Mobile Mapping
Preplans
Where do you get data?
Find it
Create and Maintain
Mobile
Desktop
Cloud Based
City, County, State, Tribes
Canned Base Data
How to get existing data?
Best by “collaborating”
Allay fears about “giving” data away
Is public information except
Utility
Public Safety
Who should Maintain Data?
(Just a Thought)
Creating and Maintaining Data
Paper to Desktop
Mobile to Desktop
The Cloud
Career Fire Lieutenant
22 years of fire service experience
BS Cartography from the University of Idaho
To support the public safety and homeland security communities in the advancement of data interoperability and information sharing, through geospatial technology, in support of local and national emergency preparedness.
Point
Line
Polygon
"I need a map for two reasons; to get me to an incident safely
(operational)
and to get resources to do my job
(planning)
!"
Paper
Not out of style
Can use
aerial image
blank preplan map from base
Can use digital pen to collect data (Adapx by Capturx)
Use Bing, Google, or local GIS Browser
Mark up image
Paper Edit Sample
Paper… The good and Not so Good
Good
Cheap!
Easy to use
Can mark up
Not so Good
Hard to manage
Duplicating work (except with digital pen)
Mobile GIS
ArcGIS Mobile comes with ArcView level license
Geared towards “task” level
Check out and sync data
Take a Picture
Make sure GPS is enabled
For features on the side of the building take a picture from approx. 20 feet away
For features on the ground take picture above image
Adding Image to Map
Download “ArcPhoto” from ESRI Resource Center
Make sure the image
Challenges
Can’t be inside
Location accuracy is ~60-70 %
The Cloud
Cloud based solution sitting on top of ArcGIS Server
Edit through the browser
Ways to Build the Map
Paper
Mobile
Internet
Wish I was Here!
Getting to the Fire
Paper
Paper
Can export to another format like
JPG
PDF
Less technical to distribute
Challenge
Printing Costs
Paper
Paper Templates
Same map, different layout!
Bulk Map Production in ArcGIS
Data Driven Pages replaces DS Map Book
Use for Preplans as well as map books
PDF (Portable Document File)
Used for “printing” mainly
Can turn layers on and off
Not very usable as a map viewer
Mobile
View Map Data in the Rig
Should be ArcObjects based
Map Object based programs can view data if the programming is robust
Examples
Incident View
Adashi
GeoComm
Remote Access
Etc.
3D Mapping of Preplan Data
Programs
ArcGIS Explorer
ArcGlobe
Google Earth
Use Sketchup to augment
Not ready for the rigs…. Yet
Internet
Computer speed
Using Mapping for “Table Top”
Using a combination of
ArcGIS
Sketchup
Google Earth
Can help in Tactics training and PIA
Which Direction do We Go?
Two Key Things to Remember
Use a standard to make the basis for your decision
NFPA
UL
Other
Back up your decision with fact based information
Analyze the information to a specific outcome
Theoretical Based Planning Maps
Not based on historical data
Usually
Response time analysis based on streets
Risk Assessment
Data Based Planning Maps
Based on existing data
CAD
RMS
Exist in the form
Pin Maps
Zone or “First Due” analysis
Based on a given metric
Response Times
Risk Assessment
Clear Standards
SAMPLE
Rapid Collapse Considerations
Results
SECURED
DANGEROUS
MARGINAL

REDUCES RISK
by proactively informing personnel
Tactical Considerations: Rapid Collapse Potential
(Heavy Fire Loading w / Open Beam Construction)
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
Which is the Best?
Square Grids
Grids fitting Geography
Recommendations
Mapping Stats for your Fire Department
Can get started with ArcGIS
Will need extensions or Add-ons for more analysis
Extensions
Network Analyst
Spatial Analyst
3D Analyst
HAVE A BUDDY CREATE THE DATA!
What you can do
Option to use KML Extractor (free on ArcScripts) and view in Google Earth
CAD Center Export
Regionalize
Good for jurisdiction that are close
More bang for buck for statistical and mapping packages
Reduces costs in duplication
CAD
Operations

Things get done by committee, requires leadership
Why do you need a “Facilitator or Mentor?”
Translate between fire and GIS
May be a consultant
“GIS Mentor”
Could be a member of a near by fire department
How to use Existing Data
Two key things
Address Field
X, Y (usually latitude and longitude)
Existing Grid systems
Chris Rogers
crogers@publicsafetygis.org
http://www.napsgfoundation.org
Twitter: @napsgfoundation
@map_hoser
Presentation: prezi.com search "GIS for the Fire Service"
What is this "Cloud"?
What Software Should I Use?
Benefits of editing in Cloud
Pros
Cons
Still need local application (ArcGIS Desktop)
Device agnostic
Easily shareable
ArcGIS
Google Earth
Bing Maps
Increases Common Operating Picture
Can take advantage of several sources of data streams
How to Manage Preplan Information?
The Future
Real time locations of personnel on an incident
4/25/2012
By: Chris Rogers
12
How does Government use GIS?
ArcGIS or other GIS Software

A “dedicated” employee
A willingness to collaborate with others
What do I need to create a map book?
What Level of GIS should my department have?
Final Thoughts
Technology is a "Gut Check"
It has to work on paper
What NAPSG Does
Polygon
Line
Point
Each thing has information about it
Also has a location!
What is this ArcGIS and why does everybody use it?
ArcGIS is the overall program
3 Levels called ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcINFO
ESRI has large market share and dominate in government
Don’t need anything more than ArcView unless you will be editing “Enterprise Data”
Preplan Samples
Preplan with Aerial
Typical Preplan
Preplan Overview
Detail Preplan with Floorplan
Map Page with Preplan Data
Page used for editing
GIS Software
Data
?
Polygon
Theoretical Based Maps
Data Based Maps
Planning
Chris Rogers
GI & S
Software
“Things that Crash”
Hardware
“Things that Beep”
Geographic Information System
Wall Map
Examples of Features
Points:
Hydrants, Landmarks, anything that has an X,Y value but nothing else
Lines
Streets, building outlines, streams, sewer and water lines, power lines, etc.
Polygons
Buildings, water bodies, edge of pavement (parking lots),
Common type of data
Street Network
Building footprints
Utilities (i.e. hydrants)
Grids or zones
Geocodes or ZIP Codes
Edge of Pavement
Parcel Data
Addresses
Address information
Water bodies
Landmark location
Fire Stations
Schools
Parks
Direct link to the cartography of a map document
Customizable (except big buttons)
Only 2D Maps
Doesn’t require internet connection
Good for the Fire Chief
Planning Maps
Powerful
Can be used with GIS with exported KML or and ArcSDE serving data
Use with SketchUp
No easily customizable
Requires internet connection
Free download from ESRI
Easily customizable
Robust set of Add-ons
Can’t use with Sketchup
Requires internet connection
Direct link to the cartography of a map document
Customizable (except big buttons)
Only 2D Maps
Doesn’t require internet connection
Good for the Fire Chief
Can create 3D Buildings
Web based
Need a service to push GIS Data
Access to Pictometry
Other
Getting into the Weeds!
Duplicate Calls
Overlay Multi-family and Adult Care
Show Intensity
Full transcript