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Transcript of Paradise Lost
December 9, 1608- November 9, 1674
Received instruction at St. Paul's school as well as from private schoolmasters at a young age
During this time, he learned Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and Italian
He went on to study at Cambridge
After spending time abroad, Milton went home and settled as a schoolmaster
Published Paradise Lost in 1677 and then again, with revision, in 1674 before passing at the age of 66
Major Characters continued
Conversation of Creation (Book VIII)
" ' In the day we eat/ of this fair fruit, our doom is, we shall die./ How dies the serpent? He hath eaten and lives,/ and knows, and speaks, and reasons, and discerns,/ Irrational till then. For us alone/ was death invented? Or to us denied/ this intellectual food, for beasts reserved?/ For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first/ hath tasted, envies not, but brings with joy/ the good befallen him, author unsuspect,/ friendly to man, far from deceit or guile./ What fear I then, rather what know to fear/ under this ignorance of good and evil,/ of God or death, of law or penalty?/ Here grows the cure of all, this fruit divine,/ fair to the eye, inviting to the taste,/ of virtue to make wise: what hinders then/ to reach, and feed at once both body and mind?'/ So saying her rash hand in evil hour,/ Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat,/ Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat/ sighing through all her works gave signs of woe, that all was lost" (p. 2804-2805, lines 762-784).
Major Events continued
The Serpent and his Cunning Ways (Book IX)
An archangel that informs Adam about Satan's plan to lure Adam and Eve into sin
Remind Adam not to be concerned with things other than what God has give him knowledge about and to be careful not to let his attraction to Eve cause him to disobey God
First man created by God
Caretaker of the Garden of Eden
He was obedient to God until Eve convinced him to eat the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge
First woman created by God
Because she was created from Adam and for Adam, she is inferior to him and therefore weaker.
Because of this, Satan focuses on her and succeeds in introducing sin through her.
Leader of the fallen angels.
Originator of sin.
Takes the form of a serpent and uses persuasive talk to convince Eve to eat form the forbidden tree, introducing sin to the world
Adam asks Raphael about astronomy of the universe. Raphael tells him that he should not worry himself with these things because God does not intend man to know everything about His creations. Adam then goes on to tell Raphael what he remembers about his own creation. He tells of how beautiful God's creation was upon first sight, but how he felt alone and asked God for a companion, upon which God created Eve. Before leaving Adam to sleep, Raphael warns Adam not to lust after Eve and warns him of the danger they both could face and warns him to avoid Satan's persuasive, sinful ways.
After Raphael has returned to heaven, Satan makes his way back into the Garden of Eden. While pondering which form to assume, Satan becomes hesitant because he feels tormented by the fact that he cannot occupy God's beautiful Earth. After dealing with his inner grief, he decided to take the form of a serpent and makes his way to find Adam and Eve. He is delighted to find Eve, the weaker soul, alone. Satan tells Eve that he is a talking and knowledgeable serpent because he ate from the Tree of Knowledge. Although she is hesitant at first, Eve eventually decides that God would only forbid the fruit if it was powerful and so she plucked the fruit and ate. She immediately went back to Adam and had him try the fruit. The two then had a brief sleep before waking and realizing the previously unknown. After realizing their sin, the two argued and passed blame for hours.
Major Events Continued
The permanent punishment (Book X)
In heaven, God instantly knows of Adam and Eve's sin. He sends His son to Earth to pass punishment onto Adam and Eve as well as Satan. Because of the sin committed, all women will give birth in pain and men will have to labor and hunt for food. As for the serpents, they would lose their legs and have to crawl on their bellies from this point forth. As this pans out, Sin and Death finish linking the road from Hell to Earth so that they can dwell on Earth, now that Satan has succeeded in introducing sin to mankind. After God's punishment is revealed, Adam and Eve realize that they were both at blame and need to stick together and stay faithful to God from this point on. The two fall to their knees and pray for forgiveness.
Major Events Continued
God's Plan for Mankind (Books XI and XII)
After hearing Adam's prayers, God gathers the angels of Heaven, informs them of His plans, and then carries out the plans. God sends the archangel Michael to tell Adam and Eve that they must leave Paradise and live in the other areas of Earth since the two are now impure. He explains that they can talk to God wherever they are and that the two are to be the father and mother of all of mankind. Michael takes Adam to a high mountaintop to show him a vision of what is to come to the Earth in the future. He is shown the different ways of death and destruction as well as God's wipeout of mankind and his covenant to never to so again. Among these events, Adam is shown Cain and Abel fighting and Noah building his ark. He fears death, but is comforted to hear Michael say that he could join God again after death if he lives a virtuous life and obeys God.
Michael continues to tell Adam about the future of mankind. He tells him about Nimrod's Tower of Babel to reach Heaven and how it will lead God to give humans several different tongues so they cannot communicate. He then explains Abraham's role and how Moses will lead the Israelites and how God will part the Red Sea for them to pass and return to Canaan. He also explains that the Messiah, Jesus Christ, will come to Earth, suffer greatly, die, and then be resurrected to punish Satan. After the ultimate sacrifice, evil will find its way back to Earth until Jesus returns one final time to judge all humankind and reunite Heaven and Earth for a final time.
" 'Solicit not thy thoughts with matters hid,/ leave them to God above, him serve and fear' " (p. 2776, lines 167-168).
" 'Think only what concerns thee and thy being;/ dream not of other worlds, what creatures there/ live, in what state, condition or degree' " (p. 2776, lines 174-176).
" 'What higher in her society though find'st/ attractive, human, rational--love still;/ in loving thou dost dwell, in passion not,/ wherein true love consists not.' " (p. 2785, lines 586-589).
" 'With what delight I could have walked thee round,/ if I could joy in aught; sweet interchange/ of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains,/ now land, now sea, and shores with forest crowned,/ rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these/ find place or refuge; and the more I see/ pleasures about me, so much more I feel/ torment within me, as from the hateful siege/ of contraries; all good to me becomes/ bane, and in Heaven much worse would be my state' " (p. 2789-2790, lines 114-123).
"In at his mouth/ the devil entered, and his brutal sense,/ in heart or head, possessing soon inspired/ with act intelligential; but his sleep/ disturbed not, waiting close th' approach of morn" (p. 2791, lines 87-191).
" 'What fear I then, rather what know to fear/ under this ignorance of good and evil,/ of God or death, of law or penalty?/ Here grows the cure of all, this fruit divine,/ fair to the eye, inviting to the taste,/ of virtue to make wise: what hinders then/ to reach, and feed at once both body and mind?' " (p. 2804, lines 773-779).
"They forthwith to the place/ repairing where he judged them, prostrate fell/ before him reverent, and both confessed/ humbly their faults, and pardon begged, with tears/ watering the ground, and with their sighs the air/ frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign/ or sorrow unfeigned and humiliation meek" (p. 2824, lines 1098-1104).
"They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow/ through Eden took their solitary way" (p. 2825, lines 648-649).
Here, Eve decides that if the serpent had eaten the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge and hadn't died, then maybe God wouldn't actually punish Adam and herself with death for eating from the tree. She questions why, if there is no consequence, not to put an end to her ignorance about things unknown. She decides to partake of the fruit, introducing sin and disobedience to God into the world.