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What Good Readers Do- Comprehension Strategies
Transcript of What Good Readers Do- Comprehension Strategies
Reading Comprehension Strategies
Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction
Supporting Reading in Content Instruction
Every teacher as a teacher of reading
Use multiple strategies
Requires direct instruction, monitoring and TIME
awareness and understanding of ones own cognitive processes
recognition when one does not understand
use of strategies
Identify comprehension objectives
preview text and build background knowledge
Chunk text/comprehension checks
teach/use text features
Determime Text Importance
Fix Up Monitoring
Summarize and Synthesize
The student asks questions before reading to focus interest and establish a purpose for reading.
The student asks questions during reading to determine meaning of words and clarify uncertainties.
The students asks right there and in my head questions.
The student can identify the type of question he has asked.
Ways to Ask Questions
Model your thinking as you support students in asking questions.
Ask questions about unfamiliar words or confusing text.
Ask "right there" and inferential questions.
Ask questions not answered by text and model how process them with connecting to known and additional research.
The student can determine important text information using sticky notes or highlighting.
The student can identify critical vocabulary and uses text features to support comprehension.
The student can identify why certain information is important and relate it to goal/objective for reading.
Ways to Determine Text Importance
Activate and build prior knowledge
Determine what is important vs. what is interesting.
Distinguish what to read carefully and what to ski.
Highlight importanct information.
Make notes/drawings in margin to support understanding and memory.
Determine author's purpose.
The student recognizes when he has lost comprehension and takes corrective actions.
The student rereads the text to clarify understanding.
The student looks for context clues to clarify the meaning of words.
The student stops and thinks about text to fix up comprehension.
The student reads on in the text to fix up comprehension.
The student can clarify the strategies he uses in a concise manner.
Ways to Monitor and Fix-Up
Reread to clarify.
Stop and think about what is read.
Stop and write about what is read. (draw, illustrate, graphic organizers, etc.)
Talk about what you have read (relate to known).
The student can make a personal connection to text and note in via sticky note/margin notes.
The student can make a text to text connection in same manner.
The student can make a text to world connection.
The student can identify the type of connection he has made.
The student can verbalize/share connections with others.
Ways to Make Connections
Text to self, text to text, text to world
"This reminds me of..."
"I had the same experience when..."
"I read about this or watched a show about this..."
"This must be like what happens when I..."
"The museum I went to had something like this..."
The student can make an inference.
The student can identify the clues he used to make an inference.
Ways to Make Inferences
Use text clues.
"The author says, I think he means..."
"I think this happened because..."
"From the events so far I think...."
"The picture suggests..."
"The graphics suggest..."
Summarize and Synthesize
Provide Direct Instruction
Model the Strategy
Provide guided practice
" this is what good readers do"
Use real world examples to demonstrate strategy.
Make the implicit explicit by thinking aloud
setting a purpose
support ongoing independent use of strategies/monitor
The student can summarize information by stating big ideas.
The student can synthesize information by stating a generalization, judgement or opinion.
The student understands how he formed his summary.
The student understands the importance of a summary.
How to Summarize
Distinguish between main ideas and details.
Practice with chunked text.
Use visual supports
Form opinions based on textual supports
"this is mainly about"
The student can draw or jot a visualization in the margins or on a sticky note.
The student can use text to imagine how something feels, sounds, smells or tastes.
The student can identify the information he used to form his mental picture.
The student can share his visualization with others.
Ways to Visualize
Use vivid verbs and adjectives that describe attributes.
Use graphic features to illustrate information (charts, graphs, maps).
Create and use similes and metaphors to make comparisons to known.
"in my mind I see..."
"the description makes me imagine..."
"I've never seen a .... but I imagine..."
Determine Text Importance
Prompt to Support Strategy Development
for students not using strategy provide a model of how to use skill
Prompts for students who are beginning to use the strategy or skill but still need direct teaching on how to use it correctly.
Prompts students who have previously demonstrated the use of the strategy but are not consistent with it. The prompts remind students that the prompts support their comprehension.
Prompts that are used at any time to validate or confirm a student's reading strategies and skills.
What Good Readers Do
They ask questions as they read.
They monitor their comprehension and use fix-it strategies when it breaks down.
They synthesize the information to make inferences and come up with new ideas.
They determine what is important.
They use existing knowledge to help understand new information
"Meaning doesn't arrive because we have highlighted text or used sticky notes or written the right words on a comprehension worksheet."
"Coaches never tell a kid to just go hit a homer, they show them where to stand in the batters box, how to hold the bat, and when to choke up". Cris Tovani
State of Literacy Instruction in Middle and High Schools
Reading and writing are rarely "instructed" beyond 8th grade.
Content teachers do not usually include reading strategy instruction in their courses and are often not trained how to do so.
Content textbooks rarely offer support to teachers on how to support struggling readers at these grade levels.