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Biology (year-end review)

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Kelly Tveit

on 1 May 2014

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Transcript of Biology (year-end review)

Genetics
MAIN IDEA:
Describe the relationships among DNA, genes, chromosomes, and proteins.
Evolution
Adaptations allow individuals to become more successful in their environmental niche.
Ecology
Biochemistry
macromolecules
- the building blocks of life
The Cell
PROKARYOTIC CELL-- has no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles (they do have ribosomes for protein synthesis) All prokaryotes are unicellular.
EUKARYOTIC CELL -- has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. All multicellular organisms (and some unicellular ones) are eukaryotes.
What is Biology?
The study of life.
Enzymes

1. proteins
2. speeds up chemical reactions
3. specific to certain reaction
4. not used up during reaction

plasma membrane
selective permeability
active/passive transport
hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic solutions
We JUST learned this, right before spring break! You know this :-)

For a quick refresher, go to the ecology prezi located on my moodle page!
Biology
Systems and Behavior of Organisms
organ systems homeostasis response to stimuli
infectious disease
Cell Division
Asexual reproduction
Somatic (body) cells
2 identical diploid (2n) cells
I-PMAT
What is life?
Characteristics of living things:
* Made of 1 or more cells
* Grows and develops
* Has organization
* Reproduces
* Responds to Stimuli
* Requires Energy
* Maintains Homeostasis
* Adaptations evolve over time
What is Science?
Scientific Method
Experimental Design
Cellular Metabolism
Mitosis--
DNA

Chromosomes are made of DNA
Double helix
Contain deoxyribose - phosphate backbone plus Nitrogen base pairs
A -- T
C -- G
Embryology
Inside the Cell...
A fertilized egg (zygote) divides by mitosis
Cells are identical until the Gastrula stage, at which point they become 3 distinct layers:
endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm
Chromosomes are tightly coiled strands of DNA located in the nucleus

DNA carries the geneic code in a series of nucleotide bases (A, T, C, G)

A gene is the specific stretch of DNA that codes for one particular protein

Production of a protein is the end result of translating the DNA code.
RNA
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
RiboNucleic Acid
RNA is responsible for taking the code from DNA and then using that to build specific proteins.
mRNA is the messenger that carries the code out of the nucleus to the ribosome (site of protein production)

rRNA is what makes up ribosomes

tRNA transfers specific amino acids to the chain to build a protein according the the instructions (codon -- 3 base code read from mRNA)
Students observed the complete evaporation of a sample of 300 milliliters of seawater over several days. They measured the mass of the beaker three times: when it was empty, after they added the seawater, and at the end of the experiment. Which question were the students most likely investigating with this activity?

A. Which elements make up the salts dissolved in seawater?

B. What is the mass of 300 milliliters of seawater?

C. Which gases in the atmosphere react with seawater?

D. What is the percentage of salt in a seawater solution?
A scientist organized the beetles in a museum collection by species. Which type of scientific investigation did the scientist perform?

A. classification

B. experimentation

C. description

D. literature survey

Some students crushed leaves from several different kinds of plants in small containers of alcohol. They filtered the mixtures, catching the green liquid from each plant in a separate test tube. The students want to find out whether these different plants have different pigments in the leaves. Which technology would be best suited for this investigation?

A. paper chromatography

B. distillation

C. microscopic examination

D. DNA fingerprinting

A single-celled organism without food has a reduced supply of cellular energy. How does this most likely affect the ability of the cell to conduct active and passive cellular transport?

A. Both active and passive transport are reduced.

B. Neither active nor passive transport are reduced.

C. Active transport is reduced, but passive transport is not affected.

D. Active transport is not affected, but passive transport is reduced.

Which property of DNA contributes the most to DNA’s ability to replicate?

A. DNA coils into a long spiral or helix.

B. DNA has two complementary strands that can separate.

C. Each strand of DNA has a sugar-phosphate backbone.

D. Each strand of DNA can be made of a unique sequence of four different bases.

The contraction of muscle cells requires the chemical breakdown of ATP into ADP, which releases energy. What type of compound lowers the activation energy required to start the breakdown of ATP?

A. a nucleic acid

B. a lipid

C. an enzyme

D. a simple sugar

MEIOSIS --
Division that creates Sex Cells
Production of Sex Cells only!
Sperm and Egg (gametes)
4 Genetically different haploid (n) cells
(Meiosis - goes through PMAT twice)
Crossing over and independent assortment allow for infinite genetic diversity!!
DNA Replication
DNA is a nucleic acid found in all living cells. What is one reason DNA is linked to all body functions?

A. DNA secretes the proteins that cells need to work.

B. DNA produces five-carbon sugars that can be used for energy.

C. DNA provides the information required to build proteins.

D. DNA controls the production of ATP, the source of energy for cells.

MAIN IDEA:
DNA --> RNA --> proteins
Differentiation in embryos causes unspecialized cells to become specialized. In the late 1800s, Hans Driesch separated the cells of sea urchin embryos in the 2-cell stage. He found that the separated cells could develop into two smaller, but otherwise normal, larvae. Which conclusion about sea urchin development is supported by his results?

A. Differentiation is controlled by the nucleus in each cell of the 2-cell stage.

B. Differentiation in the embryo must occur sometime after the 2-cell stage.

C. Differentiation in the larval stage is slower than in the 2-cell stage.

D. Differentiation is a function of a hormone released by each cell.

Use the codon chart to answer the question.



Which amino acid sequence is coded for by the mRNA sequence AUGUCCAAGGUA?

A.Met, Ser, Asn, Ala
B.Met, Ser, Lys, Val
C.Ser, Ser, Pro, Thr
D.Ile, Trp, Asn, Val

RNA is single stranded
Contains Ribose - Phosphate backbone plus Nitrogen bases: A, U, C, G
3 types: mRNA - messenger
tRNA - transfer
rRNA - ribosomal
Genotypes and phenotypes and Punnett Squares

Genotype - the genes or alleles an organisms possesses

Phenotype - the physical appearance of the trait

Homozygous - containing 2 of the same allele (TT or tt)

Heterozygous - having 2 different alleles (Tt)

Recessive - the trait that is hidden in the presence of a dominant allele (represented by the little letter.
Organism must be homozygous recessive for the trait to show)

Dominant - the trait that dominates or is shown, even in the presence of a recessive gene.

Allele - the gene type (dominant or recessive). Each organism has 2 different alleles for each gene - one from mom, and one from dad.
Vocabulary:
Which statement correctly describes how mitosis and meiosis are similar?

A. They both result in two daughter cells.

B. They both create genetic diversity within a species.

C. They both begin with DNA replicating a single time.

D. They both require a cell to evenly divide cytoplasm and organelles.

Armadillos are found throughout Louisiana. Each female armadillo has four genetically identical offspring at a time. The offspring are the result of a single fertilized egg that divides twice by mitosis, producing four separate daughter cells. Each cell develops into an individual offspring. Which characteristic of the daughter cells is typical of mitosis but not meiosis?

A. four daughter cells from one parent cell

B. same number of chromosomes as the parent

C. high rate of genetic mutations

D. decreased nucleus sizes

Two parents are both heterozygous for attached earlobes, a simple recessive trait. What percentage of their children can be expected to have attached earlobes?

A. 0%

B. 25%

C. 50%

D. 75%

In guinea pigs, black hair (B) is dominant to white hair (b). If a heterozygous black guinea pig is crossed with a white guinea pig, which genotypic ratio is expected?

A. 0BB : 2Bb : 2bb

B. 1BB : 2Bb : 1bb

C. 2BB : 0Bb : 2bb

D. 2BB : 2Bb : 0bb

The color of the flesh of a type of watermelon depends on a single gene. The allele for red (R) is completely dominant to the allele for orange (r). What are the expected results of a cross between two red heterozygous (Rr) watermelons?

A. all red offspring

B. one red for every three orange offspring

C. one orange for every three red offspring

D. all orange offspring


Pedigrees
Rules of inheritance patterns:
Autosomal Dominant
- Does not skip a generation
- Offspring must have an affected parent
- Both sexes are affected about the same frequency
- Unaffected parents do not transmit the trait.
- All offspring of an affected parent have the trait

Autosomal Recessive
- Can skip a generation
- Neither parent has to have the disorder for a child to be affected (2 heterozygous parents can produce a homozygous recessive child about 25% of the time - remember the punnett squares!)
- Affects both sexes about equally

Sex-linked (X-linked)
- One gender is way more often affected than the other

answers to practice problems on worksheet:

1. D
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. A

Genetic Engineering
ex. insulin production...
Natural Selection
Fossil evidence
A species of Anolis lizard was introduced to the island of Jamaica long ago. Field studies show that there are now at least five closely related species of Anolis on the island. Each species fills a different niche. For example, some spend most of their time on thin twigs and have thin bodies with short limbs and tails. Those that spend most of their time on the lower trunks of trees and on the ground have short, fat bodies with long hind legs. Which process is best illustrated by these field study results?

A. cellular metabolism
B. ecological succession
C. biological evolution
D. energy transfer

Convergent evolution is the development of body structures that have similar functions but have evolved independently. Which pair of structures best illustrates convergent evolution?

A. the paw of a grizzly bear and the paw of a polar bear

B. the tail of a great white shark and the tail of a blue whale

C. the neck bones of a giraffe and the neck bones of a cat

D. the tail of a crocodile and the tail of a horse

Which fossil provides the most compelling evidence of the theory of evolution?

A.a fossil of a shelled marine organism unlike any alive today

B.a fossil of an ancient tree with flower and seed parts very similar to those in trees today

C.a fossil of a dinosaur nest and an adult showing evidence of parental care

D.a fossil of an animal with some characteristics of reptiles and some characteristics of birds

In a forest, the color of tree bark gradually darkens over many years due to industrial pollution. A population of light-colored insects hides from predators during the day on the tree trunks. Which effect would the change in tree color most likely have on a dark-colored gene in the insect population?

A. Mutations will be more likely to produce the dark-colored gene.
B. The dark-colored gene will shift from recessive to dominant.
C. The frequency of the dark-colored gene will rise in the population.
D. Offspring will be more likely to inherit the dark-colored gene if one of their parents has the gene.

Certain bacteria are now considered “super bugs” because they can survive exposure to antibiotics that would normally kill them. Which type of change in the bacteria most likely allows them to survive antibiotic treatment?

A. an increase in the size of the bacteria
B. a mutation that produces a new genotype
C. an increase in the natural life span of the bacteria
D. an improvement in communication between neighboring bacterial cells

Gene frequency -- how often a particular gene appears in a population

Ex. Before the Industrial Revolution in England, the gene for white Peppered Moths was more common (higher gene frequency) because the white moths were camouflaged and more protected from predators on the light-colored tree bark.

After the pollution turned the tree trunks darker, selective pressure meant that more white moths were eaten, leaving more dark moths to survive and reproduce. After several generations, the frequency of the dark gene was more common in the population.

EVOLUTION = Change in the gene frequency over time
Fossils can trace the evolution of a species over many millions of years. As individual organisms die, they eventually become buried under sediment. Layers upon layers of sediment form rock over long periods of time. Each new layer shows a more recent period of time from the layer below it. The layers can be radioactively dated to find an estimate of how old they are.


Natural diversity in a population, and competition for resources makes certain individuals more likely to survive and reproduce, thus passing their genes on to offspring!
Embryological evidence
Biochemical
Evidence

Structural Evidence
Homologous
Structures
Analogous Structures
Vestigial Structures

no longer used
Similar functions,
different structures
You KNOW the human body! Revisit the moodle documents from this section if you want a quick reminder...
Lymphatic (Immune) System
Integumentary System (skin)
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Excretory System
Endocrine System
Reproductive System
Levels of organization
How organisms interact with other organisms and with their environment
Food Chains and Food Webs
10 % of an organisms energy gets transferred to the next trophic level
Tveit students are the BEST!!
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